Mutations

PSEN1 I143M

Overview

Pathogenicity: Alzheimer's Disease : Pathogenic
Clinical Phenotype: Alzheimer's Disease
Reference Assembly: GRCh37/hg19
Position: Chr14:73640364 T>G
dbSNP ID: rs63751071
Coding/Non-Coding: Coding
Mutation Type: Point, Missense
Codon Change: ATT to ATG
Reference Isoform: PSEN1 Isoform 1 (467 aa)
Genomic Region: Exon 5

Findings

This mutation was found in a large Xhosa family from South Africa with early onset AD (Heckmann et al., 2004). Twelve individuals spanning four generations were affected. Four individuals who underwent clinical evaluation suffered from memory loss with dementia developing across six to seven years, with a mean age at onset of 49 years. The mutation was identified in four affected carriers and was absent from nine unaffected individuals, four who were over 60 years of age, and five who were in their 50s, past the mean age at onset.

This mutation was absent from the gnomAD variant database (gnomAD v2.1.1, May 2021).

Neuropathology

The neuropathology of the proband was consistent with AD, including neuronal loss, abundant Aβ2-positive plaques, and a high degree of neurofibrillary degeneration extending into the brainstem.

Biological Effect

The biological effect of this mutation is unknown, but several other mutations linked to AD at this location have been reported to alter Aβ peptide production. Moreover, A cryo-electron microscopy study of the atomic structure of γ-secretase bound to an APP fragment indicates that, in wild-type PSEN1, I143 is apposed to the APP transmembrane helix, with its side-chain reaching towards the interior of the substrate-binding pore (Zhou et al., 2019; Jan 2019 news).

Although one study reported that in silico algorithms to predict the effects of this variant on protein function yielded conflicting results (Xiao et al., 2021), the CADD-PHRED tool, which integrates diverse information, gave it a high deleteriousness score above 20 (CADD v.1.6, Sep 2021).

Last Updated: 21 Sep 2021

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References

News Citations

  1. CryoEM γ-Secretase Structures Nail APP, Notch Binding

Paper Citations

  1. . Novel presenilin 1 mutation with profound neurofibrillary pathology in an indigenous South African family with early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2002 Jul-Aug; 23(S1):321.
  2. . Recognition of the amyloid precursor protein by human γ-secretase. Science. 2019 Feb 15;363(6428) Epub 2019 Jan 10 PubMed.
  3. . APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 Variants in Alzheimer's Disease: Systematic Re-evaluation According to ACMG Guidelines. Front Aging Neurosci. 2021;13:695808. Epub 2021 Jun 18 PubMed.

External Citations

  1. gnomAD v2.1.1
  2. CADD v.1.6

Further Reading

No Available Further Reading

Protein Diagram

Primary Papers

  1. . Novel presenilin 1 mutation with profound neurofibrillary pathology in an indigenous South African family with early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2002 Jul-Aug; 23(S1):321.

Other mutations at this position

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