# Alzbiomarker

## Version 2.1 now live

**29 Jun 2018** In the latest version, studies analyzing α-synuclein in the cerebrospinal fluid were identified and meta-analyzed. The other meta-analyses are in the process of being updated. Click here to see previous versions.

This interactive resource organizes decades of data on biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. Biomarker measurements from the cerebrospinal fluid and blood are curated from the primary literature and meta-analyzed. The database was developed in collaboration with Henrik Zetterberg and colleagues at the University of Gothenburg and the meta-analysis results of the Version 1.0 dataset have been published (Olsson et al., 2016). We welcome your feedback and invite you to contact us at alzbiomarker@alzforum.org.

See below for links to each meta-analysis along with key statistics, such as p value and effect size -- a ratio of the mean biomarker concentration of one cohort over another (e.g. AD/control). View this page on a desktop, laptop, or tablet for a colorful, interactive graph of the results, plotted by effect size and z score.

Version 2.1, June 2018

283

Papers

1546

Cohorts

26

Biomarkers

37

Meta-Analyses

# Meta-Analyses

The graph, and the table below it, show key results from all meta-analyses. As the overall result, the effect size—a ratio of the mean biomarker concentration of one condition over another (e.g. AD/control)—is plotted against the z score, a statistic indicating how far away the observed ratio is from the null hypothesis of no difference. For example, a z score of 1.96 means that the observed ratio is 1.96 times larger than the standard error; it is equivalent to p=0.05. A z score of 3.89 is equivalent to p=0.0001. Customize the plot by selecting group comparisons and/or biomarkers. The size of each circle reflects the total number of subjects in the meta-analysis. Mouse over the circle to learn more. In the table, click the arrowheads to sort each data column.

## Biomarkers:

Meta-Analysis | Effect Size | z score | p value | Number of Comparisons |
Number of Subjects |
---|---|---|---|---|

AD vs CTRL: Aβ38 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.955 | z score | p value: z = 1.05 | p = 0.29345 | Number of Comparisons: 11 | Number of Subjects: AD N=478, CTRL N=588 |

AD vs CTRL: Aβ40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.928 | z score | p value: z = 3.45 | p = 0.00056 | Number of Comparisons: 32 | Number of Subjects: AD N=1514, CTRL N=1285 |

AD vs CTRL: Aβ40 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.065 | z score | p value: z = 2.20 | p = 0.02803 | Number of Comparisons: 26 | Number of Subjects: AD N=2125, CTRL N=4265 |

AD vs CTRL: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.559 | z score | p value: z = 49.55 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 168 | Number of Subjects: AD N=11277, CTRL N=8315 |

AD vs CTRL: Aβ42 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.031 | z score | p value: z = 0.86 | p = 0.38718 | Number of Comparisons: 27 | Number of Subjects: AD N=2336, CTRL N=4452 |

AD vs CTRL: GFAP (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.119 | z score | p value: z = 0.34 | p = 0.73555 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: AD N=59, CTRL N=39 |

AD vs CTRL: MCP-1 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.123 | z score | p value: z = 4.70 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 5 | Number of Subjects: AD N=110, CTRL N=114 |

AD vs CTRL: MCP-1 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.999 | z score | p value: z = 0.02 | p = 0.98639 | Number of Comparisons: 6 | Number of Subjects: AD N=540, CTRL N=344 |

AD vs CTRL: NFL (CSF) | Effect Size: 2.313 | z score | p value: z = 8.92 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 10 | Number of Subjects: AD N=271, CTRL N=322 |

AD vs CTRL: NSE (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.470 | z score | p value: z = 2.47 | p = 0.01358 | Number of Comparisons: 7 | Number of Subjects: AD N=258, CTRL N=160 |

AD vs CTRL: NSE (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.999 | z score | p value: z = 0.01 | p = 0.99192 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: AD N=102, CTRL N=97 |

AD vs CTRL: VLP-1 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.355 | z score | p value: z = 9.69 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 8 | Number of Subjects: AD N=468, CTRL N=812 |

AD vs CTRL: YKL-40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.291 | z score | p value: z = 16.27 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 14 | Number of Subjects: AD N=668, CTRL N=630 |

AD vs CTRL: YKL-40 (Plasma) | Effect Size: 1.950 | z score | p value: z = 1.93 | p = 0.05309 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: AD N=155, CTRL N=233 |

AD vs CTRL: albumin ratio (CSF/Serum and/or Plasma) | Effect Size: 1.103 | z score | p value: z = 2.23 | p = 0.02564 | Number of Comparisons: 21 | Number of Subjects: AD N=886, CTRL N=466 |

AD vs CTRL: hFABP (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.394 | z score | p value: z = 5.63 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 5 | Number of Subjects: AD N=285, CTRL N=297 |

AD vs CTRL: hFABP (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.049 | z score | p value: z = 0.40 | p = 0.69241 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: AD N=55, CTRL N=74 |

AD vs CTRL: neurogranin (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.937 | z score | p value: z = 6.71 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 10 | Number of Subjects: AD N=574, CTRL N=555 |

AD vs CTRL: neurogranin (Plasma) | Effect Size: 0.714 | z score | p value: z = 1.14 | p = 0.25272 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: AD N=45, CTRL N=49 |

AD vs CTRL: sAPPα (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.026 | z score | p value: z = 0.59 | p = 0.55842 | Number of Comparisons: 11 | Number of Subjects: AD N=613, CTRL N=457 |

AD vs CTRL: sAPPβ (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.020 | z score | p value: z = 0.61 | p = 0.54244 | Number of Comparisons: 12 | Number of Subjects: AD N=672, CTRL N=481 |

AD vs CTRL: sTREM2 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.272 | z score | p value: z = 3.92 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 6 | Number of Subjects: AD N=388, CTRL N=370 |

AD vs CTRL: tau-phospho (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.882 | z score | p value: z = 29.47 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 116 | Number of Subjects: AD N=8416, CTRL N=5957 |

AD vs CTRL: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 2.480 | z score | p value: z = 54.71 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 188 | Number of Subjects: AD N=12503, CTRL N=8145 |

AD vs CTRL: tau-total (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.788 | z score | p value: z = 2.78 | p = 0.00550 | Number of Comparisons: 8 | Number of Subjects: AD N=447, CTRL N=552 |

AD vs CTRL: α-synuclein (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.169 | z score | p value: z = 2.63 | p = 0.00853 | Number of Comparisons: 13 | Number of Subjects: AD N=940, CTRL N=685 |

MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: Aβ38 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.127 | z score | p value: z = 2.58 | p = 0.01000 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=87, MCI-Stable N=144 |

MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: Aβ40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.010 | z score | p value: z = 0.23 | p = 0.81940 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=187, MCI-Stable N=251 |

MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: Aβ40 (Plasma) | Effect Size: 1.066 | z score | p value: z = 3.72 | p = 0.00020 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=308, MCI-Stable N=379 |

MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.663 | z score | p value: z = 13.95 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 19 | Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=526, MCI-Stable N=881 |

MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: Aβ42 (Plasma) | Effect Size: 0.807 | z score | p value: z = 0.99 | p = 0.32403 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=308, MCI-Stable N=379 |

MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: YKL-40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.271 | z score | p value: z = 5.40 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=132, MCI-Stable N=160 |

MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: neurogranin (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.542 | z score | p value: z = 2.97 | p = 0.00299 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=190, MCI-Stable N=170 |

MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: sAPPα (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.091 | z score | p value: z = 1.30 | p = 0.19510 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=118, MCI-Stable N=169 |

MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: sAPPβ (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.055 | z score | p value: z = 0.55 | p = 0.58568 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=118, MCI-Stable N=169 |

MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: tau-phospho (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.677 | z score | p value: z = 8.05 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 13 | Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=340, MCI-Stable N=645 |

MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.730 | z score | p value: z = 14.43 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 19 | Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=481, MCI-Stable N=841 |

# Further Reading

## News

- Does Serotonin Pathology Foreshadow Parkinson’s Disease?
- Drawing Closer: Alzheimer’s Blood Test for Primary Care
- NfL: Useful in Differential Diagnosis?
- Do Brain Waves During Sleep Reflect Aβ and Tau Pathologies?