Mutations

PSEN1 A231T

Overview

Pathogenicity: Alzheimer's Disease : Likely Pathogenic
Clinical Phenotype: Alzheimer's Disease
Reference Assembly: GRCh37/hg19
Position: Chr14:73659494 G>A
dbSNP ID: rs63749836
Coding/Non-Coding: Coding
Mutation Type: Point, Missense
Codon Change: GCC to ACC
Reference Isoform: PSEN1 Isoform 1 (467 aa)
Genomic Region: Exon 7

Findings

This variant was found in a French individual with familial early onset Alzheimer's disease. The family included four affected individuals with ages of onset ranging from 45 to 57 years (Campion et al., 1995). It was also reported in a French sporadic case of AD with onset at age 50 and disease duration of 3 years (Lanoiselée et al., 2017).

The mutation was absent from 50 unrelated controls, as well as from the gnomAD variant database (gnomAD v2.1.1, July 2021).

Neuropathology

Neuropathology data are unavailable, but the patient with sporadic AD had elevated tau and phospho-tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid (Lanoiselée et al., 2017). Of note, CSF Aβ42 levels were within the normal range in this individual.

Biological Effect

An in vitro assay using purified proteins to test the ability of this mutant to cleave the APP-C99 substrate revealed decreased Aβ40 and Aβ42 production, and an increased Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio (Sun et al., 2017).

Several in silico algorithms (SIFT, Polyphen-2, LRT, MutationTaster, MutationAssessor, FATHMM, PROVEAN, CADD, REVEL, and Reve in the VarCards database) predicted this variant is damaging (Xiao et al., 2021).

Last Updated: 23 Aug 2021

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References

Paper Citations

  1. . Mutations of the presenilin I gene in families with early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Dec;4(12):2373-7. PubMed.
  2. . APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 mutations in early-onset Alzheimer disease: A genetic screening study of familial and sporadic cases. PLoS Med. 2017 Mar;14(3):e1002270. Epub 2017 Mar 28 PubMed.
  3. . Analysis of 138 pathogenic mutations in presenilin-1 on the in vitro production of Aβ42 and Aβ40 peptides by γ-secretase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Jan 24;114(4):E476-E485. Epub 2016 Dec 5 PubMed.
  4. . APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 Variants in Alzheimer's Disease: Systematic Re-evaluation According to ACMG Guidelines. Front Aging Neurosci. 2021;13:695808. Epub 2021 Jun 18 PubMed.

External Citations

  1. gnomAD v2.1.1

Further Reading

Papers

  1. . Screening for PS1 mutations in a referral-based series of AD cases: 21 novel mutations. Neurology. 2001 Aug 28;57(4):621-5. PubMed.

Protein Diagram

Primary Papers

  1. . Mutations of the presenilin I gene in families with early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Dec;4(12):2373-7. PubMed.

Other mutations at this position

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