# Alzbiomarker Cross Disease

This dataset organizes published data on fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease and other related conditions. Measurements of biomarker levels from cerebrospinal fluid and blood in non-AD conditions are compared to levels in Alzheimer’s disease, and similar studies are meta-analyzed and visualized in a forest plot. See our Methods page for more details.

Meta-analyses of studies comparing biomarkers in non-AD conditions to controls are beyond the scope of Alzbiomarker.

The heatmap and the table below provide a guide to navigate the meta-analysis results that are available in this dataset. The colors in the heatmap represent the effect size for each meta-analysis: Blue indicates that the level of the biomarker in the non-AD condition is lower than the level in Alzheimer’s disease, and red indicates an increased level in the non-AD condition compared to Alzheimer’s disease. Meta-analyses that have a p value less than 0.0001 are indicated with bolded text. Filter the results by toggling the choices available on the top of the heatmap.

Aβ Amyloidosis | Tauopathies and TDP43opathies | Synucleinopathies | Prion Diseases | Others | |||||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

CTRL | CAA | lvPPA | PCA | ALS | CBS | FTD | PSP | DLB | MSA | PD | PDD | FFI | gCJD | sCJD | DEP | NPH | VaD | ||

## APP Metabolites | |||||||||||||||||||

Aβ38 CSF | 1.086 | 0.784 | 0.714 | 0.874 | 0.557 | 0.803 | |||||||||||||

Aβ40 CSF | 1.098 | 0.753 | 0.971 | 0.768 | 0.840 | 0.719 | 0.889 | 0.206 | 0.849 | 0.911 | 0.800 | 0.850 | |||||||

Aβ40 Plasma & Serum | 0.952 | 1.017 | 1.049 | 0.962 | 1.065 | ||||||||||||||

Aβ42 CSF | 1.818 | 0.862 | 0.999 | 0.926 | 1.665 | 1.512 | 1.657 | 1.475 | 1.159 | 1.547 | 1.677 | 1.372 | 1.119 | 1.918 | 1.370 | 1.308 | |||

Aβ42 Plasma & Serum | 0.959 | 1.163 | 1.160 | 1.027 | 1.053 | ||||||||||||||

sAPPα CSF | 0.966 | 0.686 | 0.862 | 0.772 | 0.843 | 0.707 | 0.919 | 0.439 | |||||||||||

sAPPα Plasma & Serum | 0.666 | ||||||||||||||||||

sAPPβ CSF | 0.987 | 0.675 | 0.712 | 0.704 | 0.874 | 0.735 | 0.921 | 0.518 | |||||||||||

sAPPβ Plasma & Serum | 1.429 | ||||||||||||||||||

## Tau-Related | |||||||||||||||||||

tau-total CSF | 0.402 | 0.686 | 1.039 | 0.615 | 0.439 | 0.494 | 0.524 | 0.367 | 0.492 | 0.388 | 0.351 | 0.430 | 1.009 | 7.025 | 11.684 | 0.338 | 0.352 | 0.595 | |

tau-total Plasma & Serum | 0.728 | 0.874 | 0.925 | 0.574 | 5.599 | 0.602 | |||||||||||||

tau-p181 CSF | 0.531 | 0.703 | 0.959 | 0.729 | 0.466 | 0.513 | 0.519 | 0.427 | 0.560 | 0.413 | 0.456 | 0.527 | 0.691 | 0.553 | 0.352 | 0.545 | |||

tau-p181 Plasma & Serum | 0.556 | 0.365 | 0.326 | 0.348 | 0.612 | ||||||||||||||

tau-p217 CSF | 0.091 | ||||||||||||||||||

tau-p217 Plasma & Serum | 0.258 | ||||||||||||||||||

tau-p231 CSF | 0.170 | ||||||||||||||||||

## Synaptic Injury | |||||||||||||||||||

α-synuclein CSF | 0.845 | 0.736 | 0.864 | 0.693 | 0.822 | 0.594 | 0.758 | 0.666 | |||||||||||

α-synuclein Plasma & Serum | 1.100 | ||||||||||||||||||

neurogranin CSF | 0.622 | 0.508 | 0.503 | 0.580 | 0.396 | 0.540 | 0.574 | 0.465 | |||||||||||

neurogranin Plasma & Serum | 1.400 | ||||||||||||||||||

## Neuronal Injury | |||||||||||||||||||

hFABP CSF | 0.696 | 0.936 | 0.814 | ||||||||||||||||

hFABP Plasma & Serum | 0.949 | 2.276 | 1.088 | ||||||||||||||||

NFL CSF | 0.505 | 4.503 | 1.653 | 1.848 | 1.487 | 1.191 | 1.801 | 0.612 | 0.835 | 2.002 | 5.194 | 1.712 | |||||||

NFL Plasma & Serum | 0.540 | 1.507 | 1.167 | 1.147 | 0.558 | ||||||||||||||

NSE CSF | 0.683 | 0.709 | |||||||||||||||||

NSE Plasma & Serum | 1.001 | 0.714 | |||||||||||||||||

VLP-1 CSF | 0.647 | ||||||||||||||||||

## Microglial Markers | |||||||||||||||||||

MCP-1 CSF | 0.917 | 1.035 | 0.929 | 0.981 | 0.960 | 0.923 | |||||||||||||

MCP-1 Plasma & Serum | 0.962 | ||||||||||||||||||

sTREM2 CSF | 0.761 | 0.923 | 1.104 | 0.741 | |||||||||||||||

## Astroglial Markers | |||||||||||||||||||

GFAP CSF | 0.666 | 1.127 | 0.774 | ||||||||||||||||

GFAP Plasma & Serum | 0.519 | 0.813 | |||||||||||||||||

YKL-40 CSF | 0.733 | 0.938 | 1.000 | 0.948 | 0.920 | 0.863 | 1.304 | 1.376 | 0.873 | ||||||||||

YKL-40 Plasma & Serum | 0.411 | ||||||||||||||||||

## Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity | |||||||||||||||||||

albumin ratio CSF | 0.901 | 1.044 | 1.260 | 1.189 | 1.203 |

Meta-Analysis | Effect Size | z score | p value | Number of Comparisons |
Number of Subjects |
---|---|---|---|---|

ALS vs AD: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.665 | z score | p value: z = 3.86 | p = 0.00012 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: ALS N=145, AD N=510 |

ALS vs AD: NFL (CSF) | Effect Size: 4.503 | z score | p value: z = 15.17 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: ALS N=80, AD N=408 |

ALS vs AD: tau-p181 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.466 | z score | p value: z = 10.58 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: ALS N=145, AD N=510 |

ALS vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.439 | z score | p value: z = 9.21 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: ALS N=134, AD N=491 |

ARD vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.463 | z score | p value: z = 1.32 | p = 0.18580 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: ARD N=30, AD N=59 |

CAA vs AD: Aβ40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.753 | z score | p value: z = 4.18 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: CAA N=29, AD N=114 |

CAA vs AD: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.862 | z score | p value: z = 1.76 | p = 0.07885 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: CAA N=29, AD N=114 |

CAA vs AD: tau-p181 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.703 | z score | p value: z = 2.32 | p = 0.02060 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: CAA N=29, AD N=114 |

CAA vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.686 | z score | p value: z = 1.94 | p = 0.05241 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: CAA N=29, AD N=114 |

CBS vs AD: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.512 | z score | p value: z = 7.05 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 7 | Number of Subjects: CBS N=113, AD N=874 |

CBS vs AD: MCP-1 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.035 | z score | p value: z = 0.35 | p = 0.72423 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: CBS N=29, AD N=76 |

CBS vs AD: NFL (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.653 | z score | p value: z = 5.89 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 7 | Number of Subjects: CBS N=104, AD N=689 |

CBS vs AD: NFL (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.507 | z score | p value: z = 1.34 | p = 0.18010 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: CBS N=83, AD N=89 |

CBS vs AD: sAPPα (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.686 | z score | p value: z = 4.13 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: CBS N=29, AD N=76 |

CBS vs AD: sAPPβ (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.675 | z score | p value: z = 3.33 | p = 0.00088 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: CBS N=50, AD N=148 |

CBS vs AD: tau-p181 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.513 | z score | p value: z = 11.23 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 10 | Number of Subjects: CBS N=156, AD N=933 |

CBS vs AD: tau-p181 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.365 | z score | p value: z = 5.4 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: CBS N=90, AD N=119 |

CBS vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.494 | z score | p value: z = 6.1 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 11 | Number of Subjects: CBS N=174, AD N=1519 |

CBS vs AD: YKL-40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.938 | z score | p value: z = 0.53 | p = 0.59748 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: CBS N=47, AD N=136 |

CBS vs AD: α-synuclein (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.736 | z score | p value: z = 3.41 | p = 0.00065 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: CBS N=26, AD N=74 |

CTRL vs AD: albumin ratio (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.901 | z score | p value: z = 3 | p = 0.00272 | Number of Comparisons: 21 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=897, AD N=1861 |

CTRL vs AD: Aβ38 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.086 | z score | p value: z = 2.12 | p = 0.03363 | Number of Comparisons: 17 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=827, AD N=887 |

CTRL vs AD: Aβ40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.098 | z score | p value: z = 4.11 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 50 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=1921, AD N=2422 |

CTRL vs AD: Aβ40 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.952 | z score | p value: z = 1.62 | p = 0.10471 | Number of Comparisons: 46 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=5311, AD N=3760 |

CTRL vs AD: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.818 | z score | p value: z = 34.3 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 202 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=10272, AD N=13930 |

CTRL vs AD: Aβ42 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.959 | z score | p value: z = 1.9 | p = 0.05783 | Number of Comparisons: 51 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=5848, AD N=4151 |

CTRL vs AD: GFAP (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.666 | z score | p value: z = 1.92 | p = 0.05530 | Number of Comparisons: 5 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=128, AD N=140 |

CTRL vs AD: GFAP (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.519 | z score | p value: z = 12.24 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 7 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=1123, AD N=738 |

CTRL vs AD: hFABP (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.696 | z score | p value: z = 6.89 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 7 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=374, AD N=361 |

CTRL vs AD: hFABP (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.949 | z score | p value: z = 0.86 | p = 0.38915 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=139, AD N=134 |

CTRL vs AD: MCP-1 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.917 | z score | p value: z = 3.12 | p = 0.00181 | Number of Comparisons: 11 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=723, AD N=460 |

CTRL vs AD: MCP-1 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.962 | z score | p value: z = 0.82 | p = 0.41128 | Number of Comparisons: 8 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=723, AD N=1112 |

CTRL vs AD: neurogranin (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.622 | z score | p value: z = 7.9 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 22 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=1389, AD N=1595 |

CTRL vs AD: neurogranin (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.400 | z score | p value: z = 1.14 | p = 0.25272 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=49, AD N=45 |

CTRL vs AD: NFL (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.505 | z score | p value: z = 14.2 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 29 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=1932, AD N=1672 |

CTRL vs AD: NFL (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.540 | z score | p value: z = 11.33 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 15 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=1526, AD N=1053 |

CTRL vs AD: NSE (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.683 | z score | p value: z = 2.87 | p = 0.00416 | Number of Comparisons: 9 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=211, AD N=293 |

CTRL vs AD: NSE (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.001 | z score | p value: z = 0.01 | p = 0.99192 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=97, AD N=102 |

CTRL vs AD: sAPPα (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.966 | z score | p value: z = 0.78 | p = 0.43779 | Number of Comparisons: 14 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=559, AD N=806 |

CTRL vs AD: sAPPα (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.666 | z score | p value: z = 1.58 | p = 0.11352 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=151, AD N=132 |

CTRL vs AD: sAPPβ (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.987 | z score | p value: z = 0.48 | p = 0.62907 | Number of Comparisons: 17 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=740, AD N=1031 |

CTRL vs AD: sAPPβ (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.429 | z score | p value: z = 1.04 | p = 0.30006 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=178, AD N=176 |

CTRL vs AD: sTREM2 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.761 | z score | p value: z = 6.37 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 12 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=686, AD N=714 |

CTRL vs AD: tau-p181 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.531 | z score | p value: z = 29.11 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 148 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=8460, AD N=10756 |

CTRL vs AD: tau-p181 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.556 | z score | p value: z = 7.94 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 19 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=1744, AD N=1175 |

CTRL vs AD: tau-p217 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.091 | z score | p value: z = 11.17 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=249, AD N=164 |

CTRL vs AD: tau-p217 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.258 | z score | p value: z = 1.74 | p = 0.08162 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=393, AD N=252 |

CTRL vs AD: tau-p231 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.170 | z score | p value: z = 4.67 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 5 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=111, AD N=259 |

CTRL vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.402 | z score | p value: z = 39.39 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 227 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=11056, AD N=15441 |

CTRL vs AD: tau-total (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.728 | z score | p value: z = 5.53 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 36 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=4061, AD N=2715 |

CTRL vs AD: VLP-1 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.647 | z score | p value: z = 5.23 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 7 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=385, AD N=353 |

CTRL vs AD: YKL-40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.733 | z score | p value: z = 7.39 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 32 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=1844, AD N=1716 |

CTRL vs AD: YKL-40 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.411 | z score | p value: z = 2.43 | p = 0.01521 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=487, AD N=342 |

CTRL vs AD: α-synuclein (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.845 | z score | p value: z = 3.55 | p = 0.00038 | Number of Comparisons: 24 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=1140, AD N=1237 |

CTRL vs AD: α-synuclein (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.100 | z score | p value: z = 0.98 | p = 0.32567 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: CTRL N=78, AD N=109 |

DEP vs AD: Aβ40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.911 | z score | p value: z = 1.72 | p = 0.08504 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: DEP N=43, AD N=174 |

DEP vs AD: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.918 | z score | p value: z = 7.01 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 5 | Number of Subjects: DEP N=86, AD N=298 |

DEP vs AD: tau-p181 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.553 | z score | p value: z = 9.13 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: DEP N=56, AD N=203 |

DEP vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.338 | z score | p value: z = 10.81 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 9 | Number of Subjects: DEP N=164, AD N=678 |

DLB vs AD: albumin ratio (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.260 | z score | p value: z = 3.77 | p = 0.00016 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: DLB N=78, AD N=955 |

DLB vs AD: Aβ38 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.714 | z score | p value: z = 1.95 | p = 0.05149 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: DLB N=111, AD N=205 |

DLB vs AD: Aβ40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.840 | z score | p value: z = 3.82 | p = 0.00013 | Number of Comparisons: 10 | Number of Subjects: DLB N=305, AD N=826 |

DLB vs AD: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.159 | z score | p value: z = 5.84 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 42 | Number of Subjects: DLB N=1390, AD N=4292 |

DLB vs AD: hFABP (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.936 | z score | p value: z = 0.73 | p = 0.46589 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: DLB N=73, AD N=83 |

DLB vs AD: hFABP (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 2.276 | z score | p value: z = 3.29 | p = 0.00100 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: DLB N=50, AD N=58 |

DLB vs AD: neurogranin (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.580 | z score | p value: z = 3.36 | p = 0.00078 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: DLB N=79, AD N=643 |

DLB vs AD: NFL (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.191 | z score | p value: z = 1.16 | p = 0.24704 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: DLB N=155, AD N=637 |

DLB vs AD: sAPPα (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.843 | z score | p value: z = 1.57 | p = 0.11563 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: DLB N=40, AD N=169 |

DLB vs AD: sAPPβ (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.874 | z score | p value: z = 0.95 | p = 0.34022 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: DLB N=40, AD N=169 |

DLB vs AD: sTREM2 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.104 | z score | p value: z = 0.86 | p = 0.38894 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: DLB N=39, AD N=152 |

DLB vs AD: tau-p181 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.560 | z score | p value: z = 14.94 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 38 | Number of Subjects: DLB N=1189, AD N=4027 |

DLB vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.492 | z score | p value: z = 20.25 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 46 | Number of Subjects: DLB N=1373, AD N=4919 |

DLB vs AD: YKL-40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.920 | z score | p value: z = 2.22 | p = 0.02654 | Number of Comparisons: 5 | Number of Subjects: DLB N=122, AD N=231 |

DLB vs AD: α-synuclein (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.822 | z score | p value: z = 3.27 | p = 0.00109 | Number of Comparisons: 17 | Number of Subjects: DLB N=524, AD N=887 |

FFI vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.009 | z score | p value: z = 0.08 | p = 0.93416 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: FFI N=29, AD N=149 |

FTD vs AD: albumin ratio (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.044 | z score | p value: z = 0.52 | p = 0.60314 | Number of Comparisons: 8 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=199, AD N=1215 |

FTD vs AD: Aβ38 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.784 | z score | p value: z = 3.1 | p = 0.00196 | Number of Comparisons: 8 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=185, AD N=474 |

FTD vs AD: Aβ40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.971 | z score | p value: z = 0.78 | p = 0.43772 | Number of Comparisons: 14 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=400, AD N=1005 |

FTD vs AD: Aβ40 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.017 | z score | p value: z = 0.22 | p = 0.82562 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=27, AD N=84 |

FTD vs AD: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.657 | z score | p value: z = 19.06 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 56 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=1484, AD N=5429 |

FTD vs AD: Aβ42 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.163 | z score | p value: z = 2.82 | p = 0.00474 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=27, AD N=84 |

FTD vs AD: GFAP (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.127 | z score | p value: z = 0.67 | p = 0.50435 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=66, AD N=81 |

FTD vs AD: GFAP (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.813 | z score | p value: z = 1.54 | p = 0.12369 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=237, AD N=217 |

FTD vs AD: MCP-1 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.929 | z score | p value: z = 1.55 | p = 0.12104 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=55, AD N=192 |

FTD vs AD: neurogranin (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.508 | z score | p value: z = 8.64 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 7 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=180, AD N=1487 |

FTD vs AD: NFL (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.848 | z score | p value: z = 8.78 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 21 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=615, AD N=2140 |

FTD vs AD: NFL (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.167 | z score | p value: z = 1.67 | p = 0.09501 | Number of Comparisons: 10 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=394, AD N=421 |

FTD vs AD: sAPPα (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.862 | z score | p value: z = 1.96 | p = 0.05017 | Number of Comparisons: 5 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=118, AD N=366 |

FTD vs AD: sAPPβ (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.712 | z score | p value: z = 4.98 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 11 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=292, AD N=848 |

FTD vs AD: sTREM2 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.923 | z score | p value: z = 0.46 | p = 0.64787 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=36, AD N=129 |

FTD vs AD: tau-p181 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.519 | z score | p value: z = 18.31 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 50 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=1361, AD N=4551 |

FTD vs AD: tau-p181 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.326 | z score | p value: z = 3.94 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 8 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=358, AD N=504 |

FTD vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.524 | z score | p value: z = 21.23 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 70 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=1738, AD N=6322 |

FTD vs AD: tau-total (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.874 | z score | p value: z = 2.55 | p = 0.01080 | Number of Comparisons: 6 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=148, AD N=323 |

FTD vs AD: YKL-40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.000 | z score | p value: z = 0.01 | p = 0.99243 | Number of Comparisons: 19 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=495, AD N=1062 |

FTD vs AD: α-synuclein (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.864 | z score | p value: z = 0.73 | p = 0.46551 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: FTD N=102, AD N=218 |

gCJD vs AD: NFL (CSF) | Effect Size: 2.002 | z score | p value: z = 2.07 | p = 0.03857 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: gCJD N=27, AD N=87 |

gCJD vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 7.025 | z score | p value: z = 4.93 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: gCJD N=65, AD N=191 |

gCJD vs AD: YKL-40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.304 | z score | p value: z = 3.24 | p = 0.00120 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: gCJD N=22, AD N=112 |

lvPPA vs AD: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.999 | z score | p value: z = 0.03 | p = 0.97589 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: lvPPA N=32, AD N=418 |

lvPPA vs AD: tau-p181 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.959 | z score | p value: z = 0.52 | p = 0.60254 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: lvPPA N=32, AD N=418 |

lvPPA vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.039 | z score | p value: z = 0.34 | p = 0.73297 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: lvPPA N=32, AD N=418 |

MSA vs AD: Aβ40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.719 | z score | p value: z = 5.05 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: MSA N=49, AD N=62 |

MSA vs AD: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.547 | z score | p value: z = 12.94 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 8 | Number of Subjects: MSA N=209, AD N=846 |

MSA vs AD: MCP-1 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.960 | z score | p value: z = 0.29 | p = 0.77074 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: MSA N=65, AD N=76 |

MSA vs AD: neurogranin (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.396 | z score | p value: z = 7.56 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: MSA N=55, AD N=224 |

MSA vs AD: NFL (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.801 | z score | p value: z = 3.52 | p = 0.00043 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: MSA N=113, AD N=124 |

MSA vs AD: sAPPα (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.707 | z score | p value: z = 5.59 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: MSA N=65, AD N=76 |

MSA vs AD: sAPPβ (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.735 | z score | p value: z = 4.09 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: MSA N=65, AD N=76 |

MSA vs AD: tau-p181 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.413 | z score | p value: z = 14.98 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 7 | Number of Subjects: MSA N=220, AD N=346 |

MSA vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.388 | z score | p value: z = 11.27 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 10 | Number of Subjects: MSA N=255, AD N=986 |

MSA vs AD: α-synuclein (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.594 | z score | p value: z = 10.49 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 5 | Number of Subjects: MSA N=155, AD N=198 |

NPH vs AD: Aβ38 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.557 | z score | p value: z = 10.84 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: NPH N=114, AD N=65 |

NPH vs AD: Aβ40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.800 | z score | p value: z = 1.18 | p = 0.23866 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: NPH N=137, AD N=98 |

NPH vs AD: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.370 | z score | p value: z = 4.62 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 11 | Number of Subjects: NPH N=508, AD N=775 |

NPH vs AD: sAPPα (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.439 | z score | p value: z = 8.52 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: NPH N=160, AD N=75 |

NPH vs AD: sAPPβ (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.518 | z score | p value: z = 12.78 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: NPH N=160, AD N=75 |

NPH vs AD: tau-p181 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.352 | z score | p value: z = 11.2 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 8 | Number of Subjects: NPH N=463, AD N=590 |

NPH vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.352 | z score | p value: z = 7.67 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 11 | Number of Subjects: NPH N=508, AD N=775 |

PCA vs AD: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.926 | z score | p value: z = 0.47 | p = 0.64182 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PCA N=34, AD N=43 |

PCA vs AD: tau-p181 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.729 | z score | p value: z = 1.41 | p = 0.15745 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PCA N=34, AD N=43 |

PCA vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.615 | z score | p value: z = 1.25 | p = 0.21302 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PCA N=34, AD N=43 |

PD vs AD: albumin ratio (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.189 | z score | p value: z = 2.86 | p = 0.00421 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: PD N=53, AD N=120 |

PD vs AD: Aβ38 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.874 | z score | p value: z = 1.5 | p = 0.13296 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: PD N=307, AD N=207 |

PD vs AD: Aβ40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.889 | z score | p value: z = 2.27 | p = 0.02331 | Number of Comparisons: 6 | Number of Subjects: PD N=404, AD N=402 |

PD vs AD: Aβ40 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.962 | z score | p value: z = 0.78 | p = 0.43687 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PD N=118, AD N=156 |

PD vs AD: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.677 | z score | p value: z = 20.83 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 25 | Number of Subjects: PD N=1233, AD N=1883 |

PD vs AD: Aβ42 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.027 | z score | p value: z = 0.28 | p = 0.77608 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PD N=118, AD N=156 |

PD vs AD: hFABP (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.088 | z score | p value: z = 0.5 | p = 0.61367 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: PD N=151, AD N=89 |

PD vs AD: MCP-1 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.923 | z score | p value: z = 2.51 | p = 0.01206 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: PD N=190, AD N=260 |

PD vs AD: neurogranin (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.540 | z score | p value: z = 29.06 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: PD N=260, AD N=664 |

PD vs AD: NFL (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.612 | z score | p value: z = 2.93 | p = 0.00336 | Number of Comparisons: 5 | Number of Subjects: PD N=262, AD N=557 |

PD vs AD: NFL (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.558 | z score | p value: z = 5.88 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: PD N=77, AD N=260 |

PD vs AD: sAPPα (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.919 | z score | p value: z = 0.74 | p = 0.45961 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PD N=101, AD N=76 |

PD vs AD: sAPPβ (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.921 | z score | p value: z = 0.81 | p = 0.41546 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PD N=101, AD N=76 |

PD vs AD: sTREM2 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.741 | z score | p value: z = 1.16 | p = 0.24591 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PD N=89, AD N=184 |

PD vs AD: tau-p181 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.456 | z score | p value: z = 18.1 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 23 | Number of Subjects: PD N=1033, AD N=1548 |

PD vs AD: tau-p181 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.612 | z score | p value: z = 9.73 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: PD N=106, AD N=182 |

PD vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.351 | z score | p value: z = 21.96 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 31 | Number of Subjects: PD N=1323, AD N=1985 |

PD vs AD: tau-total (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.574 | z score | p value: z = 5.43 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: PD N=130, AD N=185 |

PD vs AD: YKL-40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.863 | z score | p value: z = 2.63 | p = 0.00857 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PD N=104, AD N=94 |

PD vs AD: α-synuclein (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.758 | z score | p value: z = 4.48 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 13 | Number of Subjects: PD N=661, AD N=538 |

PDD vs AD: Aβ40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.206 | z score | p value: z = 1.11 | p = 0.26732 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PDD N=54, AD N=98 |

PDD vs AD: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.372 | z score | p value: z = 5.08 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 9 | Number of Subjects: PDD N=216, AD N=967 |

PDD vs AD: hFABP (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.814 | z score | p value: z = 1.68 | p = 0.09326 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PDD N=45, AD N=83 |

PDD vs AD: neurogranin (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.574 | z score | p value: z = 5.83 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PDD N=58, AD N=521 |

PDD vs AD: NFL (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.835 | z score | p value: z = 0.74 | p = 0.46161 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PDD N=62, AD N=445 |

PDD vs AD: tau-p181 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.527 | z score | p value: z = 9.96 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 6 | Number of Subjects: PDD N=135, AD N=574 |

PDD vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.430 | z score | p value: z = 18.04 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 10 | Number of Subjects: PDD N=222, AD N=968 |

PDD vs AD: α-synuclein (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.666 | z score | p value: z = 7.38 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 5 | Number of Subjects: PDD N=104, AD N=174 |

PSP vs AD: Aβ40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.768 | z score | p value: z = 4.02 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PSP N=50, AD N=62 |

PSP vs AD: Aβ40 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.049 | z score | p value: z = 1.32 | p = 0.18756 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PSP N=41, AD N=45 |

PSP vs AD: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.475 | z score | p value: z = 8.36 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 10 | Number of Subjects: PSP N=250, AD N=1209 |

PSP vs AD: Aβ42 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.160 | z score | p value: z = 2.34 | p = 0.01929 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PSP N=41, AD N=45 |

PSP vs AD: MCP-1 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.981 | z score | p value: z = 0.35 | p = 0.72448 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PSP N=67, AD N=76 |

PSP vs AD: neurogranin (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.503 | z score | p value: z = 4.2 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: PSP N=87, AD N=621 |

PSP vs AD: NFL (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.487 | z score | p value: z = 5.95 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 6 | Number of Subjects: PSP N=183, AD N=616 |

PSP vs AD: NFL (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.147 | z score | p value: z = 0.8 | p = 0.42314 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: PSP N=96, AD N=210 |

PSP vs AD: sAPPα (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.772 | z score | p value: z = 3.96 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PSP N=67, AD N=76 |

PSP vs AD: sAPPβ (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.704 | z score | p value: z = 2.6 | p = 0.00946 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: PSP N=95, AD N=148 |

PSP vs AD: tau-p181 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.427 | z score | p value: z = 14.08 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 12 | Number of Subjects: PSP N=290, AD N=1148 |

PSP vs AD: tau-p181 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.348 | z score | p value: z = 4.11 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: PSP N=99, AD N=240 |

PSP vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.367 | z score | p value: z = 18.4 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 15 | Number of Subjects: PSP N=337, AD N=1932 |

PSP vs AD: tau-total (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.925 | z score | p value: z = 0.5 | p = 0.61611 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: PSP N=56, AD N=164 |

PSP vs AD: YKL-40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.948 | z score | p value: z = 0.63 | p = 0.52850 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: PSP N=77, AD N=136 |

PSP vs AD: α-synuclein (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.693 | z score | p value: z = 7.57 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: PSP N=109, AD N=99 |

sCJD vs AD: Aβ40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.849 | z score | p value: z = 0.98 | p = 0.32886 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: sCJD N=611, AD N=158 |

sCJD vs AD: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.119 | z score | p value: z = 1.58 | p = 0.11492 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: sCJD N=1283, AD N=521 |

sCJD vs AD: GFAP (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.774 | z score | p value: z = 0.54 | p = 0.58878 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: sCJD N=107, AD N=58 |

sCJD vs AD: NFL (CSF) | Effect Size: 5.194 | z score | p value: z = 12.45 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 7 | Number of Subjects: sCJD N=468, AD N=354 |

sCJD vs AD: tau-p181 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.691 | z score | p value: z = 7.48 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: sCJD N=676, AD N=448 |

sCJD vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 11.684 | z score | p value: z = 19.88 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 11 | Number of Subjects: sCJD N=1633, AD N=1006 |

sCJD vs AD: tau-total (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 5.599 | z score | p value: z = 2.03 | p = 0.04242 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: sCJD N=148, AD N=65 |

sCJD vs AD: YKL-40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.376 | z score | p value: z = 4.09 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: sCJD N=202, AD N=152 |

VaD vs AD: albumin ratio (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.203 | z score | p value: z = 1.83 | p = 0.06719 | Number of Comparisons: 9 | Number of Subjects: VaD N=429, AD N=1243 |

VaD vs AD: Aβ38 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.803 | z score | p value: z = 5.13 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: VaD N=109, AD N=125 |

VaD vs AD: Aβ40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.850 | z score | p value: z = 2.93 | p = 0.00339 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: VaD N=148, AD N=206 |

VaD vs AD: Aβ40 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.065 | z score | p value: z = 1.11 | p = 0.26662 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: VaD N=102, AD N=224 |

VaD vs AD: Aβ42 (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.308 | z score | p value: z = 8.56 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 26 | Number of Subjects: VaD N=601, AD N=2819 |

VaD vs AD: Aβ42 (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 1.053 | z score | p value: z = 0.56 | p = 0.57514 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: VaD N=121, AD N=266 |

VaD vs AD: neurogranin (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.465 | z score | p value: z = 8.93 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: VaD N=54, AD N=96 |

VaD vs AD: NFL (CSF) | Effect Size: 1.712 | z score | p value: z = 2.87 | p = 0.00404 | Number of Comparisons: 5 | Number of Subjects: VaD N=158, AD N=265 |

VaD vs AD: NSE (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.709 | z score | p value: z = 3.16 | p = 0.00157 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: VaD N=78, AD N=115 |

VaD vs AD: NSE (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.714 | z score | p value: z = 2.61 | p = 0.00903 | Number of Comparisons: 2 | Number of Subjects: VaD N=24, AD N=48 |

VaD vs AD: tau-p181 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.545 | z score | p value: z = 10.51 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 19 | Number of Subjects: VaD N=442, AD N=2166 |

VaD vs AD: tau-total (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.595 | z score | p value: z = 8.12 | p <0.0001 | Number of Comparisons: 37 | Number of Subjects: VaD N=899, AD N=3943 |

VaD vs AD: tau-total (Plasma and Serum) | Effect Size: 0.602 | z score | p value: z = 2.04 | p = 0.04156 | Number of Comparisons: 4 | Number of Subjects: VaD N=97, AD N=215 |

VaD vs AD: YKL-40 (CSF) | Effect Size: 0.873 | z score | p value: z = 2.62 | p = 0.00882 | Number of Comparisons: 3 | Number of Subjects: VaD N=72, AD N=178 |

# Further Reading

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