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Name: Fosgonimeton
Synonyms: ATH-1017, NDX-1017
Therapy Type: Small Molecule (timeline)
Target Type: Other (timeline)
Condition(s): Alzheimer's Disease, Dementia with Lewy Bodies, Parkinson's Disease Dementia
U.S. FDA Status: Alzheimer's Disease (Phase 2), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (Phase 2), Parkinson's Disease Dementia (Phase 2)
Company: Athira Pharma


NDX-1017 is a brain-penetrant small molecule that activates signaling via the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET receptor system. HGF promotes proliferation and survival of neurons, enhances hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and boosts learning and memory (Akimoto et al., 2004; Kato et al., 2012). NDX-1017 is being developed as a subcutaneous once-daily injection.

Hippocampal expression of MET receptors is diminished in Alzheimer’s disease (Hamasaki et al., 2014). Conversely, expression of HGF by gene transfer improved Aβ-induced cognitive deficits in mice, and prevented motor symptoms and neuron loss in a rat model of parkinsonism (Takeuchi et al., 2008; Koike et al., 2006).

Direct, intrathecal administration of hepatocyte growth factor itself has been studied in a rat model of ALS and a marmoset model of traumatic brain injury, and is being investigated clinically for ALS in Japan (Aoki et al., 2019). 

No preclinical studies of NDX-1017 have been published. The drug may be related to N-hexanoic-Tyr-Ile-(6) aminohexanoic amide, aka DihexaU.S. Patent 8598118B2. This small-molecule, brain-penetrant angiotensin IV analog was invented by researchers at Washington State University, Pullman. Dihexa activates HGF/MET signaling to stimulate dendritic arborization and synaptogenesis, and improves learning/memory in aged rats, and in rats with scopolamine-induced amnesia (ScienceDaily news storyMcCoy et al., 2013; Benoist et al., 2014; reviewed in Wright and Harding, 2015). 

M3 Biotechnology was founded to commercialize Dihexa (see WSU article). The company told Alzforum that further development led to NDX-1017. M3 Biotechnology in 2019 was renamed Athira Pharma, and NDX-107 in 2020 was renamed ATH-1017 and, in March 2022, fosgonimeton.


In October 2017, the company began a first-in-human, Phase 1 safety study of single- and multiple-ascending doses in 88 healthy people and AD patients. Funded by ADDF and others, the placebo-controlled trial tested doses from 2 to 90 mg, injected subcutaneously. Outcomes were drug-related adverse events and pharmacokinetics.

Results were presented at the 2019 CTAD conference (Dec 2019 conference news). In the single-ascending-dose portion, 48 healthy men received up to 90 mg and no drug-related adverse events were seen. Likewise, multiple dosing of 29 healthy elderly and 11 AD patients with up to 80 or 40 mg/day, respectively, for nine days raised no safety issues, with dose-proportional pharmacokinetics in all groups 

Quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) and event-related potential (ERP) measures were evaluated as noninvasive markers of brain penetration and target engagement by NDX-1017. EEG gamma power is associated with learning, memory, and executive functions, while ERP P300 latency is a marker of cognitive processing speed. In people with AD, gamma power is reduced, and P300 latency is lengthened. In the trial, NDX-1017 was reported to cause a dose-related increase in gamma power in healthy people; in the AD group, multiple dosing led to improvements in gamma power and p300 latency. The trial included no cognitive assessments. Trial results were published after peer review (Hua et al., 2022NeurologyLive).

In September 2020, the company began a Phase 2 trial called LIFT-AD. It plans to enroll 300 participants with clinically diagnosed mild to moderate AD, and compare two doses of drug to placebo, given once daily using prefilled syringes, for six months. The primary outcome will be the Global Statistical Test, a combination of scores from the ADAS-Cog11 and the ADCS-Clinical Global Impression of Change. Secondary endpoints will include ADAS-Cog11, ADCS CGIC, and ADCS-ADL. The study is expected to be completed in October 2022.

In November 2021, a second Phase 2 study began to assess the relationship between ERP changes and cognition in 77 people with mild to moderate AD. Participants will receive 40 or 70 mg ATH-1017 or placebo daily for six months, with an optional six-month open label extension. The primary outcome is ERP P300 latency; secondary outcomes include ADAS-Cog11, global clinical change, ADCS-ADL, and drug pharmacokinetics. The trial is slated to run until May 2022. Both studies offer a one-year, open-label extension to assess safety.

In June 2021, the company placed CEO Leen Kawas on temporary leave amid questions about research integrity related to her doctoral dissertation, which laid the foundations for work on ATH-1017 (Seattle Times news story). According to news reports, Washington State University is conducting an investigation of multiple papers from her time as a researcher there, after comments on PubPeer noted irregularities in figures and data (Puget Sound Business Journal newsSTAT news). Kawas resigned in October 2021, after an independent investigation found altered images in her dissertation and at least four publications related to her graduate work (company release).

In January 2022, Athira began a Phase 2 trial testing 26 weeks of fosgonimeton on cognition in people with Parkinson’s disease dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Seventy-five participants will be randomized to 40 or 70 mg fosgonimeton or placebo, injected daily, against a primary outcome of a combined score of the ADAS-Cog 13 and P300 latency. Completion is anticipated by November 2023. 

In February 2022, the company listed a new Phase 1 in 68 healthy adults to evaluate ATH-1020, a pill formulation of ATH-1017, which they plan to develop for depression and schizophrenia.

For details on NDX-1017/ATH-1017 trials, see

Clinical Trial Timeline

  • Phase 2
  • Study completed / Planned end date
  • Planned end date unavailable
  • Study aborted
Sponsor Clinical Trial 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032
Athira Pharma NCT04488419
Athira Pharma NCT04491006
Athira Pharma NCT04886063
Athira Pharma NCT04831281

Last Updated: 04 Apr 2022


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News Citations

  1. At CTAD, Early Failures and Hints of Success, from Small Trials

Paper Citations

  1. . Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of the Positive Modulator of HGF/MET, Fosgonimeton, in Healthy Volunteers and Subjects with Alzheimer's Disease: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Phase I Clinical Trial. J Alzheimers Dis. 2022;86(3):1399-1413. PubMed.
  2. . Hepatocyte growth factor as an enhancer of nmda currents and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Neuroscience. 2004;128(1):155-62. PubMed.
  3. . Hepatocyte growth factor overexpression in the nervous system enhances learning and memory performance in mice. J Neurosci Res. 2012 Sep;90(9):1743-55. PubMed.
  4. . Down-regulation of MET in hippocampal neurons of Alzheimer's disease brains. Neuropathology. 2014 Jun;34(3):284-90. Epub 2014 Jan 21 PubMed.
  5. . Alleviation of Abeta-induced cognitive impairment by ultrasound-mediated gene transfer of HGF in a mouse model. Gene Ther. 2008 Apr;15(8):561-71. PubMed.
  6. . Prevention of onset of Parkinson's disease by in vivo gene transfer of human hepatocyte growth factor in rodent model: a model of gene therapy for Parkinson's disease. Gene Ther. 2006 Dec;13(23):1639-44. Epub 2006 Jun 22 PubMed.
  7. . [Application of Hepatocyte Growth Factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis]. Brain Nerve. 2019 Nov;71(11):1253-1260. PubMed.
  8. . Evaluation of Metabolically Stabilized Angiotensin IV Analogs as Procognitive/Antidementia Agents. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013 Jan;344(1):141-54. PubMed.
  9. . The procognitive and synaptogenic effects of angiotensin IV-derived peptides are dependent on activation of the hepatocyte growth factor/c-met system. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014 Nov;351(2):390-402. Epub 2014 Sep 3 PubMed.
  10. . The Brain Hepatocyte Growth Factor/c-Met Receptor System: A New Target for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;45(4):985-1000. PubMed.

External Citations

  1. NeurologyLive
  2. Seattle Times news story
  3. Puget Sound Business Journal news
  4. STAT news
  5. company release
  7. Dihexa
  8. U.S. Patent 8598118B2
  9. ScienceDaily news story
  10. WSU article

Further Reading


  1. . Cognitive benefits of angiotensin IV and angiotensin-(1-7): A systematic review of experimental studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018 Sep;92:209-225. Epub 2018 May 4 PubMed.
  2. . The development of small molecule angiotensin IV analogs to treat Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Prog Neurobiol. 2015 Feb;125:26-46. Epub 2014 Nov 29 PubMed.