Name: Exenatide
Synonyms: Exendin-4, Byetta, Bydureon
Therapy Type: Small Molecule (timeline)
Target Type: Other (timeline)
Condition(s): Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease
U.S. FDA Status: Alzheimer's Disease (Inactive), Parkinson's Disease (Phase 3)
Approved for: Diabetes mellitus in US


Exenatide is a long-acting analog of the hormone glucagon-like peptide-1. GLP-1 stimulates the pancreas to release insulin in response to food intake. It resensitizes cells to insulin signaling and is used to treat Type 2 diabetes. The rationale of this approach is that counteracting the insulin resistance that accompanies some cases of Alzheimer's disease might confer a therapeutic benefit (e.g. Talbot et al., 2012Talbot, 2014).

In animal models of PD, the compound dampens inflammation and protects dopaminergic neurons, which were reported to express GLP-1 receptor (Bertilsson et al., 2008Cao et al., 2016Jan 2009 news).

In mouse models of AD, exendin-4 was reported to lower amyloid plaque load and protect against Aβ oligomers (Li et al., 2010Gengler et al., 2012Bomfim et al., 2012). The related GLP-1 analogue liraglutide was reported to have similar effects (Dec 2010 news). Exenatide was also reported to enhance cognition in insulin-resistant rats (Gad et al., 2016), and to enhance insulin receptor signaling and learning in Tg2576 mice (Robinson et al., 2019).


In 2010, an investigator-sponsored trial at University College London enrolled 44 people with moderate Parkinson's disease into an open-label study. Half the cohort injected themselves with 10 micrograms of exendin-4 twice daily for a year, in addition to taking L-dopa, while the other half took only L-dopa. Movement abilities were reported to have improved in participants on drug, and declined in those on L-dopa only (Jun 2013 news).

From 2014 to 2016, UCL researchers ran a placebo-controlled Phase 2 trial of 2 milligrams exendin-4 administered subcutaneously once per week for 48 weeks. This trial enrolled 60 people with moderate Parkinson's. Motor symptoms were reported to have improved in those on drug, with improvement persisting for three months past dosing, whereas the placebo group declined (Aug 2017 news).

From 2016 through 2019, the University of Parma, Italy, ran a trial comparing a 36-week course of once-weekly subcutaneous injection of 2 mg long-acting exenatide to placebo for its effect on cognitive decline in 40 prediabetic patients; the primary outcome was decline on the ADAD-cog.

In June 2018, a Phase 1 open-label study sponsored by the University of Florida started recruiting what was to be 20 participants with Parkinson's to evaluate a one-year course of 2 milligram subcutaneous exenatide. The outcomes are imaging measures of free water in the substantia nigra and blood oxygenation in multiple brain regions. This trial stopped enrolling after five patients, and completed treatment in October 2020.

From 2010 to November 2016, the NIA ran a single-center Phase 2 Alzheimer's disease trial. The study compared 5 or 10 micrograms exendin-4 or placebo, taken twice daily for 18 months, in people with a clinical diagnosis of prodromal or mild Alzheimer's disease ascertained by cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 of below 192 pg/ml, indicating amyloid buildup in the brain. The trial originally aimed to enroll 230 participants and was to run until January 2013, but randomized only 27 participants. After AstraZeneca withdrew its support, it was terminated in November 2016 with 18 participants remaining. Findings have not been published in a peer-reviewed journal, but study results posted on indicate more cases of nausea in the drug than placebo group, and no statistically significant treatment benefit.

In January 2020, a trial in Stockholm began enrolling 60 people with Parkinson's disease to receive 2 mg once weekly for 18 months, with a primary outcome of changes in brain glucose uptake on FDG-PET.

In 2020, four new efficacy trials were launched. In January, University College London began a Phase 2 trial in 200 people with Parkinson's, who will receive 2 mg extended-release exenatide once weekly for two years. In September, another trial at UCL began enrolling 50 people with multiple system atrophy, a rapidly progressing Parkinsonian α-synucleinopathy, for a 12-month course of once-weekly exenatide. In February, a multicenter trial in Korea started enrolling 99 people with early PD to test PT320, an extended-release form of exendin-4 that is claimed to have better blood-brain barrier penetration. This trial will compare PT320 to placebo, given by subcutaneous injection once per week for 48 weeks. Also in February, a multicenter trial in the U.S. began comparing placebo to two doses of NLY01, a pegylated formulation of exendin-4, in 240 people with early PD. Treatment will run for 36 weeks. 

Exendin-4 is also being evaluated in stroke, and brain and spinal cord injury. For details on trials of exendin-4 in neurodegenerative diseases, see

Last Updated: 20 Apr 2021


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News Citations

  1. Single-Blind Trial: Diabetes Drug Helps Parkinson’s, Maybe
  2. Diabetes Drug Improves Parkinson’s Motor Symptoms in Small Trial
  3. Type 2 Diabetes and Neurodegeneration—The Plot Caramelizes
  4. San Diego: A New Tack on Insulin-Based Therapies?

Therapeutics Citations

  1. Liraglutide

Paper Citations

  1. . Demonstrated brain insulin resistance in Alzheimer's disease patients is associated with IGF-1 resistance, IRS-1 dysregulation, and cognitive decline. J Clin Invest. 2012 Apr;122(4):1316-38. PubMed.
  2. . Brain insulin resistance in Alzheimer's disease and its potential treatment with GLP-1 analogs. Neurodegener Dis Manag. 2014 Feb;4(1):31-40. PubMed.
  3. . Peptide hormone exendin-4 stimulates subventricular zone neurogenesis in the adult rodent brain and induces recovery in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci Res. 2008 Feb 1;86(2):326-38. PubMed.
  4. . A novel dual GLP-1 and GIP incretin receptor agonist is neuroprotective in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease by reducing chronic inflammation in the brain. Neuroreport. 2016 Apr 13;27(6):384-91. PubMed.
  5. . GLP-1 receptor stimulation reduces amyloid-beta peptide accumulation and cytotoxicity in cellular and animal models of Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;19(4):1205-19. PubMed.
  6. . Val(8)GLP-1 rescues synaptic plasticity and reduces dense core plaques in APP/PS1 mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2012 Feb;33(2):265-76. PubMed.
  7. . An anti-diabetes agent protects the mouse brain from defective insulin signaling caused by Alzheimer's disease- associated Aβ oligomers. J Clin Invest. 2012 Apr 2;122(4):1339-53. PubMed.
  8. . Pioglitazone and exenatide enhance cognition and downregulate hippocampal beta amyloid oligomer and microglia expression in insulin-resistant rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2016 Aug;94(8):819-28. Epub 2015 Dec 16 PubMed.
  9. . Combination of Insulin with a GLP1 Agonist Is Associated with Better Memory and Normal Expression of Insulin Receptor Pathway Genes in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. J Mol Neurosci. 2019 Apr;67(4):504-510. Epub 2019 Jan 11 PubMed.

External Citations


Further Reading


  1. . Exenatide as a potential treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease: first steps into the clinic. Alzheimers Dement. 2014 Feb;10(1 Suppl):S38-46. PubMed.
  2. . Parkinson's disease, insulin resistance and novel agents of neuroprotection. Brain. 2012 Feb 17; PubMed.
  3. . A New Treatment Strategy for Parkinson's Disease Through the Gut-Brain Axis: The Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Pathway. Cell Transplant. 2017 Apr 26; PubMed.
  4. . The extra-pancreatic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists: a focus on the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013 Dec 24; PubMed.
  5. . Disrupted energy metabolism and neuronal circuit dysfunction in cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Lancet Neurol. 2011 Feb;10(2):187-98. PubMed.
  6. . Glucagon-like Peptide-1 and the Central/Peripheral Nervous System: Crosstalk in Diabetes. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Feb;28(2):88-103. Epub 2016 Oct 27 PubMed.
  7. . Exenatide and the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease. J Clin Invest. 2013 Jun 3;123(6):2730-6. PubMed.
  8. . Post hoc analysis of the Exenatide-PD trial-Factors that predict response. Eur J Neurosci. 2019 Feb;49(3):410-421. Epub 2018 Oct 6 PubMed.
  9. . What Effects Might Exenatide have on Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis. J Parkinsons Dis. 2018;8(2):247-258. PubMed.
  10. . Diabetes, insulin and new therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease: Focus on glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2021 Jul;62:100914. Epub 2021 Apr 15 PubMed.
  11. . An extended release GLP-1 analogue increases α-synuclein accumulation in a mouse model of prodromal Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2021 Jul;341:113693. Epub 2021 Mar 13 PubMed.
  12. . GLP-1 receptor agonists for Parkinson's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jul 23;7:CD012990. PubMed.
  13. . PT320, Sustained-Release Exendin-4, Mitigates L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia in a Rat 6-Hydroxydopamine Model of Parkinson's Disease. Front Neurosci. 2020;14:785. Epub 2020 Aug 11 PubMed.