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4 Models

Name Other Names Strain Name Genetic Background Gene Mutation Modification Info Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition Other Phenotype Availability Primary Paper Visualization
Mouse Models (4)
APPPS1-21 B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-APPSw,Thy1-PSEN1*L166P)21Jckr C57BL/6J APP, PSEN1 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), PSEN1 L166P Human transgenes APP KM670/671NL and PSEN1 L166P, both under the control of the Thy1 promoter. Integration site is on lower arm of chromosome 2 between 40 and 60 cm. APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid plaque deposition starts at approximately 6 weeks in the neocortex. Amyloid deposits in the hippocampus appear at 3-4 months, and in the striatum, thalamus and brainstem at 4-5 months. Phosphorylated tau-positive neuritic processes have been observed in the vicinity of all congophilic amyloid deposits, but no fibrillar tau inclusions are seen.  Cognitive deficits in spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze reported at 7 months. Impaired reversal learning of a food-rewarded four-arm spatial maze task at 8 months. Aβ42 concentration in CSF decreases with age, with a 50% reduction by 6 months and an 80% reduction by 18 months. Aβ40 concentration also decreases, but less robustly (45% by 18 months). CSF concentration of total tau increases, starting at 6 months, and reaches a 5-fold increase by 18 months. Available through Mathias Jucker Radde et al., 2006 Yes
Trem2-/- (Colonna) C57BL/6 -TREM2tm1cln C57BL/6 Trem2 Inactivation of the mouse Trem2 gene by targeted deletion of exons 3 and 4 Trem2: Knock-Out Nasu-Hakola Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease Microglial number remains constant and microglial size decreases with age in the corpus callosum of Trem2 KO mice, while microglial number increases and microglial size remains stable in wild-type mice. No cognitive/behaviorial deficits observed. Osteopenic. Impaired microglial response to experimental demyelination, middle cerebral artery occlusion, and facial nerve axotomy. Available through Marco Colonna Turnbull et al., 2006 Yes
Trem2-/-5XFAD, mTrem2-/-5XFAD  C57BL/6 -TREM2tm1cln; B6SJL-Tg(APPSwFlLon,PSEN1*M146L*L286V)6799Vas/Mmja C57BL/6 Trem2, APP, PSEN1 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP I716V (Florida), APP V717I (London), PSEN1 M146L (A>C), PSEN1 L286V 5XFAD mice were crossed with Trem2 KO mice. TREM2 KO: Targeted deletion of exons 3 and 4 of mouse Trem2. 5XFAD express two transgenes: 1) human APP with the Swedish, Florida and London mutations, containing the 5' untranslated region and driven by the mouse Thy1 promoter and 2) human PSEN1 with the M146L and L286V mutations driven by the mouse Thy1 promoter. Trem2: Knock-Out; APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Compared with 5XFAD, mice deficient in TREM2 show an age- dependent increase in amyloid accumulation in the hippocampus, more severe plaque-associated neuritic dystrophy, and exaggerated neuron loss in the cortex. Microglial containment of plaques is compromised in TREM2-deficient animals. Microglia accumulate autophagosomes. No data. Trem2 KO: available through Marco Colonna. 5XFAD: The Jackson Lab; available through the JAX MMRRC Stock# 034848; Live Wang et al., 2015 Yes
APPPS1;Trem2-/- TREM2tm1(KOMP)Vlcg; B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-APPSw,Thy1-PSEN1*L166P)21Jckr C57BL/6 Trem2, APP, PSEN1 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), PSEN1 L166P Trem2-/-: The entire coding region of the Trem2 gene was replaced by Velocigene cassette ZEN-Ub1 (lacZ-p(A)-loxP-hUbCpro-neor-p(A)-LoxP). APPPS1: Mice express human APP with the Swedish (K670M/N671L) mutations and human PSEN1 with the L166P mutation, both under control of the Thy1 promoter. Trem2: Knock-Out; APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Reduced plaque burden at early stages of plaque deposition but increased plaque burden at later stages, fewer plaque-associated myeloid cells and astrocytes, less phospho-tau in plaque-associated dystrophic neurites, compared with APPPS1. No data. APPPS1 available through Mathias Jucker; Trem2 KO available through UC Davis KOMP Repository, Project VG10093, cryo-recovery or sperm Jay et al., 2015, Jay et al., 2017 Yes

4 Visualizations

AD-related Research Models

Phenotypes Examined

  • Plaques
  • Tangles
  • Neuronal Loss
  • Gliosis
  • Synaptic Loss
  • Changes in LTP/LTD
  • Cognitive Impairment

When visualized, these phenotypes will distributed over a 18 month timeline demarcated at the following intervals: 3mo, 6mo, 9mo, 1yr, 15mo, 18mo+.

APPPS1

Observed
  1. X
    Plaques at 6

    Aβ deposition begins at 6 weeks of age in the cortex and 3-4 months of age in the hippocampus (Radde et al., 2006).

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 74

    Global neuron loss is not observed, but modest neuron loss was found in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and other subregions with high neuronal density in 17-month old animals (Rupp et al., 2011).

  3. X
    Gliosis at 6

    Activated microglia around Aβ deposits at 6 weeks as well as increased astrogliosis (Radde et al., 2006). Levels of CCL2 and TNFα increase at later ages (Lee et al., 2010).

  4. X
    Synaptic Loss at 10

    Dendritic spine loss around plaques reported to begin approximately 4 weeks after plaque formation and continue for several months (Bittner et al., 2012).

  5. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 35

    Hippocampal CA1 LTP normal at 4.5 months of age, but impaired at 8 and 15 months of age (Gengler et al., 2010).

  6. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 30

    Cognitive deficits in spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze reported at 7 months (Serneels et al., 2009). Impaired reversal learning of a food-rewarded four-arm spatial maze task observed at 8 months (Radde et al., 2006).

Absent
  • Tangles at

    Phosphorylated tau-positive neuritic processes around plaques have been observed, but no mature tangles (Radde et al., 2006).

No Data
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
APP, PSEN1 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), PSEN1 L166P APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Amyloid plaque deposition starts at approximately 6 weeks in the neocortex. Amyloid deposits in the hippocampus appear at 3-4 months, and in the striatum, thalamus and brainstem at 4-5 months. Phosphorylated tau-positive neuritic processes have been observed in the vicinity of all congophilic amyloid deposits, but no fibrillar tau inclusions are seen.

 

Cognitive deficits in spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze reported at 7 months. Impaired reversal learning of a food-rewarded four-arm spatial maze task at 8 months.

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Trem2 KO (Colonna)

Observed
Absent
  • Gliosis at

    No spontaneous gliosis, but impaired microglial response to injury.

  • Cognitive Impairment at

    Not observed.

No Data
  • Plaques at

    No data.

  • Tangles at

    No data.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    No data.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    No data.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
Trem2 Trem2: Knock-Out Nasu-Hakola Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease

Microglial number remains constant and microglial size decreases with age in the corpus callosum of Trem2 KO mice, while microglial number increases and microglial size remains stable in wild-type mice.

No cognitive/behaviorial deficits observed.

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Trem2 KO (Colonna) x 5XFAD

Observed
  1. X
    Plaques at 16

    Plaques present by 4 months, the earliest age studied.

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 32

    Loss of cortical layer V neurons by 8 months, the earliest age studied.

  3. X
    Gliosis at 16

    MIcrogliosis by 4 months, the earliest age studied.

Absent
No Data
  • Tangles at

    No data.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    No data.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

  • Cognitive Impairment at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
Trem2, APP, PSEN1 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP I716V (Florida), APP V717I (London), PSEN1 M146L (A>C), PSEN1 L286V Trem2: Knock-Out; APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Compared with 5XFAD, mice deficient in TREM2 show an age- dependent increase in amyloid accumulation in the hippocampus, more severe plaque-associated neuritic dystrophy, and exaggerated neuron loss in the cortex. Microglial containment of plaques is compromised in TREM2-deficient animals. Microglia accumulate autophagosomes.

No data.

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Trem2 KO (KOMP) x APPPS1

Observed
  1. X
    Plaques at 9

    Plaques are observed by 2 months.

  2. X
    Gliosis at 9

    Gliosis is observed by 2 months.

Absent
No Data
  • Tangles at

    No data.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    No data.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    No data.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

  • Cognitive Impairment at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
Trem2, APP, PSEN1 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), PSEN1 L166P Trem2: Knock-Out; APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Reduced plaque burden at early stages of plaque deposition but increased plaque burden at later stages, fewer plaque-associated myeloid cells and astrocytes, less phospho-tau in plaque-associated dystrophic neurites, compared with APPPS1.

No data.

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