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39 Models

Name Other Names Strain Name Genetic Background Gene Mutation Modification Info Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition Other Phenotype Availability Primary Paper Visualization
Mouse Models (36)
3xTg-AD, The LaFerla mouse B6;129-Psen1tm1Mpm Tg(APPSwe,tauP301L)1Lfa/Mmjax C7BL/6;129X1/SvJ;129S1/Sv APP, PSEN1, MAPT APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), MAPT P301L, PSEN1 M146V Single-cell embryos from mice with knock-in of PSEN1 with the PS1M146V mutation were injected with two human transgenes (APP with the Swedish mutation and MAPT with the P30IL mutation). Transgenes integrated at a single locus under the control of the mouse Thy1.2 promoter. APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Transgenic; MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Age-related, progressive neuropathology including plaques and tangles. Extracellular Aβ deposits by 6 months in frontal cortex, more extensive by 12 months. No tau pathology at 6 months, but evident at 12 months. Synaptic dysfunction, including LTP deficits, prior to plaques and tangles. Cognitive impairment by 4 months. Impairments first manifest as a retention/retrieval deficit and not as a learning deficit, and occur prior to plaques and tangles. Deficits in both spatial and contextual based paradigms. Clearance of intraneuronal Aβ by immunotherapy rescues the early cognitive deficits in a hippocampal-dependent task. The Jackson Lab; available through the JAX MMRRC Stock# 034830; Live Oddo et al., 2003 Yes
AppNL-G-F/MAPT double knock-in, AppNL-G-F/MAPT dKI C57BL/6J App, MAPT APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP I716F (Iberian), APP E693G (Arctic) AppNL-G-F mice (mouse App sequence modified to contain a humanized Aβ region and the Swedish, Iberian, and Arctic mutations linked to AD) were crossed with MAPT knock-in mice (entire genomic sequence of murine Mapt, from exon 1 to exon 14, replaced with the human MAPT gene from the ATG codon of exon 1 to the 3'-untranslated region). App: Knock-In; MAPT: Knock-In Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid plaques, plaque-associated neuritic dystrophy, and neuroinflammation, similar to AppNL-G-F. Deficits in the Y-maze test of working memory, similar to AppNL-G-F. Compared with AppNL-G-F mice, AppNL-G-F/MAPT double knock-in mice showed accelerated propagation of pathological tau species after AD-derived tau was injected into the mouse brain. Available through Takaomi Saido, RIKEN Center for Brain Science. Saito et al., 2019, Hashimoto et al., 2019 Yes
APPswe/PSEN1dE9/MAPT, APPswe/PSEN1dE9/CaMKIIa-tTa/TRE-Tg21221 B6.C3 x B6.129 x FVB APP, PSEN1, MAPT APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), PSEN1: deltaE9 APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice were crossed with B6.129-Tg(CK-tTa) mice where the CaMKIIa promotor drives expression of tetracycline transactivator (tTA) in forebrain neurons. Offsping were then crossed to the Tg21221 line with a responder transgene of wildtype human tau. APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Transgenic; MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Tau accumulations, dystrophic neurites, astrocytosis, neuronal loss, and synapse loss were more pronounced adjacent to cortical plaques. Tangles were not observed. No data. N/A APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice available through JAX MMRRC Stock# 034829. Jackson et al., 2016 Yes
human tau B6.Cg-Mapttm1(EGFP)Klt Tg(MAPT)8cPdav/J The targeted allele was created in 129S4/SvJae-derived J1 embryonic stem cells that were subsequently injected into C57BL/6 blastocysts. The transgenic allele was generated in embryos derived from a cross between Swiss Webster and B6D2F1. Mice containing both alleles were back-crossed to C57BL/6 mice . MAPT Double mutant mice were generated by mating mice that express human tau (8c mice) (Duff et al., 2000), with tau knockout mice that have a targeted disruption of exon one of tau (Tucker et al., 2001), then back-crossed to obtain mice that are homozygous for disrupted murine MAPT while carrying the human tau transgene. MAPT: Knock-Out; MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia Age-associated tau pathology, including redistribution of tau to cell bodies and dendrites, phosphorylated tau, accumulation of aggregated paired helical filaments, and ultimately thioflavin-S positive neurofibrillary tangles. Pathology most severe in neocortex and hippocampus, and minimal in the brain stem and spinal cord. Some neuronal loss. Normal object-recognition memory and spatial learning/memory (as assessed by the Morris Water Maze) at four months, but impaired at 12 months (Polydoro et al., 2009).  General health, weight, basic reflexes, sensory responses, locomotor function, anxiety level, and gross motor function were not different from age-matched controls (Polydoro et al., 2009). The Jackson Lab: Stock# 005491; Live. The CRO QPS-Austria offers research services with this line. Andorfer et al., 2003 Yes
CaMKII-tTA/TRE-hTau-A152T C57BL/6-Tg(tetO-MAPT*A152T)L1Lms/J C59Bl/6J MAPT MAPT A152T These bigenic mice use the CaMKIIα promoter to drive expression of tetracycline transactivator (tTA) in forebrain neurons. The responder transgene is the 1N4R isoform of human tau with the A152T mutation. Expression is constitutive unless suppressed by doxycycline. MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy Tangles or dense tau inclusions not observed. Abnormal accumulations of soluble tau. Age-dependent neuronal loss was observed in the hippocampus. Age-dependent learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze. Nest building impaired. Social interaction, anxiety, exploratory behavior, and motor functions were normal. Increase in basal synaptic activity and epileptiform spikes. Life span normal. Available as single transgenics: The Jackson Lab Stock# 028979 (cyropreserved) and Stock# 007004 (live) Maeda et al., 2016 Yes
hTau40-AT, Ala152T-Tau, A152T-Tau, Tau/A152T C57BL/6 MAPT MAPT A152T Human full-length tau (hTau40) isoform 2N4R with the A152T mutation expressed under the Thy1.2 promotor is located in the ROSA26 locus. MAPT: Knock-In Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy Tangles in hippocampus, cortex, and spinal cord at 3 months with age-dependent increases. Tau hyperphosphorylation, conformation changes, and mislocalization observed. Age-dependent loss of synapses. Age-dependent learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze. Motor functions normal. Increase in basal synaptic transmission. Available through Eva Mandelkow Decker et al., 2016, Sydow et al., 2016 Yes
Tau.P301S, hTAU[P301S], tau[P301S] Thy1-hTau.P301S (CBA.C57BL/6) CBAxC57BL/6 MAPT MAPT P301S Transgenic mice overexpressing a human tau isoform that is 383 amino acids long with four microtubule-binding repeat domains and without N-terminal inserts (4R/0N). Site-directed mutagenesis was used to introduce the P301S mutation. Transgene is under the control of the neuron-specific murine Thy-1 promoter. MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy Age-dependent hyperphosphorylation of tau and conformational changes leading to neurofibrillary tanglelike pathology in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and spinal cord. Neurodegeneration, especially in the spinal cord, accompanied by astrocytosis. Early motor impairment, including abnormal clasping and rotarod deficit at 4 months, with nearly complete deficit at 5 months. Deficits progress to severe paraparesis. Disinhibition and hyperactivity at 2 to 3 months. Muscle weakness, tremor. Frequent eye inflammation. Available for academic use from Michel Goedert and for commercial use from LifeArc. The CRO reMYND offers research services with this line. Allen et al., 2002 Yes
TauP301L-JNPL3 Tg(Prnp-MAPT*P301L)JNPL3Hlmc C57BL/6, DBA/2, SW Mixed Background MAPT MAPT P301L Transgene for human MAPT (4R0N) with the P301L mutation driven by the mouse prion promoter. MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Alzheimer's Disease Age and gene-dose dependent development of neurofibrillary tangles as early as 4.5 months in homozygotes and 6.5 months in heterozyotes. Tangles and Pick-body-like inclusions in the amygdala, hypothalamus, pons, medulla, and spinal cord among other areas. Neuronal loss, especially in the spinal cord. By 10 months, 90% developed motor and behavioral disturbances including limb weakness, hunched posture, decrease in grooming and vocalization. Eye irritiation, possibily due to carrying the Pde6brd1 retinal degeneration mutation carries Pde6brd1 mutation Taconic: Stock#2508 (homozygote)#1638 (heterozygote and wild-type) has been discontinued. Lewis et al., 2000 Yes
MAPT KI, hTau KI C57BL/6J MAPT Homologous recombination was used to replace the entire genomic sequence of murine Mapt (from exon 1 to exon 14) with the human MAPT gene from the ATG codon of exon 1 to the 3'-untranslated region (H2 haplotype; NCBI Reference Sequence: NG_007398). MAPT: Knock-In Alzheimer's Disease, Other Tauopathy No evidence of increased neuroinflammation, neuronal death, or brain atrophy in MAPT knock-in mice, compared with wild-type mice. MAPT knock-in mice perform similarly to wild-type mice in the Y-maze test of working memory. Compared with wild-type mice, MAPT knock-in mice showed accelerated propagation of pathological tau species after AD-derived tau was injected into the mouse brain. Available through Takaomi Saido, RIKEN Center for Brain Science. Saito et al., 2019, Hashimoto et al., 2019 Yes
line 13 C57BL/6 x DBA/2F1, crossed with DBA MAPT MAPT L266V, MAPT G272V Transgene expressing human 3R tau bearing the L266V and G272V mutations under the neuronal mThy-1 promoter. MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Pick's disease, Alzheimer's Disease Accumulation of 3R tau in neurons of the cortex and hippocampus. Pick body-like tau aggregates and neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cortex. Astrogliosis, with some 3R tau in GFAP-positive astrocytes. Synapto-dendritic changes and mitochondrial pathology. Age-related memory and motor deficits as assessed by habituation to a novel environment, the Morris water maze, and the round beam test. Increased anxiety. Unknown Rockenstein et al., 2015 Yes
hAPP/hTau/hPS1, PLB1(Triple) C57BL6 APP, MAPT, PSEN1 APP V717I (London), APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), PSEN1 A246E, MAPT P301L, MAPT R406W Targeted insertion of human APP and tau sequences at the HPRT site on the X chromosome, driven by mouse CaMKII-α. Human APP (isoform 770) with the Swedish and London mutations. Human tau (isoform 2N/4R, 441 amino acids) with P301L and R406W. APP/tau-expressing animals (PLB1-double) were crossed with hPS1 (A246E) transgenic mice (Borchelt et al., 1997) to generate the triple transgenic. APP: Multi-transgene; MAPT: Multi-transgene; PSEN1: Multi-transgene Alzheimer's Disease Age-related neuropathology including intraneuronal and oligomeric Aβ accumulation and hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampus and cortex from six months. Minimal amyloid plaques up to 21 months. Subtle tau pathology, but no overt tangles. Cortical hypometabolism with increased metabolic activity in basal forebrain and ventral midbrain by FDG-PET/CT. Cognitive deficits in recognition memory and spatial learning emerging between five and 12 months. Impairments in hippocampal plasticity. Litter size and overall health were normal. Mice spent more time awake at six months and had fragmented sleep. Quantitative EEG showed heightened delta power during wakefulness and REM sleep. Available through Bettina Platt Platt et al., 2011 Yes
PS19-TREM2CV, PS19-T2CV C57BL/6 MAPT, TREM2, Trem2 MAPT P301S These mice carry a human MAPT transgene with the P301S mutation linked to frontotemporal dementia and a BAC transgene encoding the common variant of human TREM2, on a mouse-Trem2-null background. MAPT: Transgenic; TREM2: Transgenic; Trem2: Knock-Out Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia Brain atrophy by 9 months of age. Increased microgliosis, astrogliosis and synapse loss, compared with PS19 mice carrying TREM2 with the R47H mutation. Not known. Increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and DAM (disease-associated microglia) genes, compared with PS19 mice carrying TREM2 with the R47H mutation. PS19 mice are available from The Jackson Laboratory (Stock# 008169). TREM2 mice are available through Marco Colonna. Gratuze et al., 2020 Yes
PS19-T2R47H, PS19-TREM2R47H C57BL/6 MAPT, TREM2, Trem2 MAPT P301S, TREM2 R47H These mice carry a human MAPT transgene with the P301S mutation linked to frontotemporal dementia and a BAC transgene encoding the R47H variant of human TREM2, on a Trem2 knockout background. MAPT: Transgenic; TREM2: Transgenic; Trem2: Knock-Out Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia Decreased brain atrophy, microgliosis, astrogliosis, and synapse loss, compared with PS19 mice carrying the common variant of TREM2. Not known. Decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and DAM (disease-associated microglia) genes, compared with PS19 mice carrying the common variant of TREM2. PS19 mice are available from The Jackson Laboratory (Stock# 008169). TREM2 mice are available through Marco Colonna. Gratuze et al., 2020 Yes
neuropsin-tTA x FVB-Tg(tetO-tauP301L)4510 4510 mice are on an FVB background. Neuropsin-tTA mice are on a C57BL/6 background. MAPT MAPT P301L Bigenic mice made by crossing an activator line, neuropsin-tTA, with a responder line, Tg(tetO-tauP301L)4510. The neuropsin promoter drives the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) transgene preferentially in a subset of entorhinal neurons. tTA drives expression of human tau (4R0N) with the P301L mutation. Transgene expression in bigenic mice is constitutive until suppressed by doxycycline. MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease Propagating tau pathology starting in the entorhinal cortex and spreading to regions functionally connected to the EC (e.g., dentate gyrus). Neurodegeneration and axonal degeneration, first in EC and parasubiculum. Gliosis and synaptic loss. Subtle cognitive deficit in contextual fear conditioning, but not in the radial arm maze, at 16 months. Mild specific deficit in locomotor activity in the open field test. No apparent change in anxiety as assessed by the open field test. Reduced Arc induction in the hippocampus after contextual fear conditioning. Subtle differences in basal synaptic transmission with enhanced axonal excitability. de Calignon et al., 2012 Yes
rTg4510, rTg(tetO-TauP301L)4510, Tau P301L 129S6.Cg-Tg(Camk2a-tTA)1Mmay/JlwsJ; Fgf14Tg(tetO-MAPT*P301L)4510Kha/J. Formerly: 129S6.Cg-Tg(Camk2a-tTA)1Mmay/JlwsJ; FVB-Tg(tetO-MAPT*P301L)#Kha/JlwsJ Mixed: 129S6 (activator) X FVB (responder) MAPT MAPT P301L Bi-transgenic mice are made by crossing an activator line, CaMKIIα-tTA, with a responder line, Tg(tetO-tauP301L)4510. The CaMKIIα promoter drives the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) transgene preferentially in forebrain neurons. tTA drives expression of human tau (4R0N) with the P301L mutation. Transgene expression in bi-transgenic mice is constitutive until suppressed by doxycycline. MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia Argyrophilic tangle-like inclusions in cortex by 4 months and in hippocampus by 5.5 months. Decreased CA1 neurons (~60 percent) by 5.5 months. Gross forebrain atrophy by 10 months. The number of CA1 neurons stabilized after a brief (six to eight week) suppression of transgenic tau. Spatial memory impairments by 2.5 to 4 months. No significant motor impairment up to 6 months of age. When the transgene was suppressed with dox at 2.5 months, spatial memory improved. Homozygous mice are not viable. It should be noted that disruption of an endogenous mouse gene, caused by random insertion of the MAPT transgene, significantly contributes to the neuropathological and neurodegenerative phenotypes observed in rTg4510 mice 4510 responder line: The Jackson Lab: Stock# 015815; Activator line: The Jackson Lab: Stock# 016198. Santacruz et al., 2005, Ramsden et al., 2005, Gamache et al., 2019 Yes
Tau R406W-Prp C57BL6 x C3H, maintained in B6C3 background MAPT MAPT R406W Human tau with the R406W mutation driven by the mouse prion protein promoter. MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia Age-dependent increase in tau. Neurofibrillary-tangle-like pathology (filamentous intraneuronal tau aggregates), especially in the hippocampus. Neurodegeneration. Extensive gliosis in the brain and spinal cord. Progressive motor weakness with advancing age, as demonstrated by dystonic movements of the hindlimbs when lifted by the tail. Altered microtubule binding and slow axonal transport of tau. Reduced lifespan. Unknown Zhang et al., 2004 No
Tau(WT) transgenic (line 264) B6C3F1 embryos, backcrossed to C57BL/6 MAPT This transgenic mouse expresses 3-repeat (3R) and 4-repeat (4R) isoforms of wild-type human tau. The minigene, driven by the mouse CAMKIIα promoter, includes intronic sequences flanking exon 10, allowing for physiological splicing of exon 10. MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy No overt neuropathology even at the advanced age of 24 months. Comparable to non-Tg mice in Morris water maze tasks at 4 and 6 months of age. Available through Hiroshi Mori and Takami Tomiyama Umeda et al., 2013 No
C57BL/6 (75%) and 129/Ola (25%). MAPT A fragment of human tau (187-441 a.a.) expressed under control of the human tau promotor was inserted at the Hprt locus. MAPT: Transgenic Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy Progressive tau pathology in the hippocampus, including abnormally phosphorylated and misfolded tau, mislocalized tau, and tangle-like structures. Dystrophic neurites. Impaired spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze. Early motor impairments, including abnormal limb clasping, Rotarod deficits and decreased grip strength. Muscle fibers in the quadriceps and latissimus muscles appeared to be degenerative/regenerative. Progressive spine curvature. Unknown. Bondulich et al., 2016 Yes
B6.Cg-Tg(Thy-MAPT*)2652Gds C57BL/6J MAPT This transgenic mouse overexpresses wild-type human tau (1N4R). The Thy1.2 promoter drives high levels of transgene expression in the CNS. MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy, Alzheimer's Disease Extensive pretangle pathology throughout the brain (e.g. phospho- tau) but no mature neurofibrillary tangles and only mild oligomeric tau, restricted to the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Dystrophic neurites and axonal pathology (spheroids). No overt neuronal loss. Motor deficits develop with age, including decreased grip strength and impaired Rotarod performance. Cognitive deficits, indicative of impaired spatial learning and memory, as assessed by the Barnes maze. Homozygous mice have reduced body weight, reduced fertility, and premature death. Some homozygous mice also exhibit seizure activity. The MMRRC Stock# MMRRC:036717 Wheeler et al., 2015 Yes
Tau 10 + 16 , Tau(10+16 intron mutation)Tg, line 609 B6C3F1 embryos, backcrossed to C57BL/6 MAPT MAPT IVS10+16 C>T This model expresses a tau minigene driven by the mouse CAMKIIα promoter. The minigene encodes human tau 441, including partial intronic sequences flanking exon 10 of MAPT. The intronic mutation, IVS10 +16 C>T, was introduced by site-directed mutagenesis. MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease, Other Tauopathy Aggregated tau in neurons of the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex at advanced ages. Intraneuronal accumulation of tau oligomers in the hippocampus. Neuronal loss in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. Gliosis. Some hippocampal areas affected by age-related synaptic dysfunction and reduced synaptic density. Impaired spatial reference memory as measured by the Morris water maze by 6 months of age.  Human tau transcripts containing exon 10 are over-represented in the adult mouse brain, leading to elevated levels of 4R tau relative to 3R tau. Available through Hiroshi Mori and Takami Tomiyama Umeda et al., 2013 Yes
TauA152T-AAV C57BL/6 MAPT MAPT A152T An adeno-associated viral (AAV1) vector encoding TauA152T under the control of the cytomegalovirus enhancer/chicken β-actin promoter was injected bilaterally into the lateral ventricles of neonatal C57BL/6 mice. MAPT: Virus Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy Neuron loss and astrogliosis were observed in the cortices of 3-month-old mice. Compared with GFP-AAV controls, TauA152T-AAV mice showed deficits in contextual and cued fear conditioning, increased hyperactivity, and decreased rearing in the open-field test, and spent more time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. TauA152T-AAV mice also exhibited motor impairment on the Rotarod. Unknown. Carlomagno et al., 2019 Yes
Transgenic caspase-cleaved tau BALB/C MAPT These transgenic mice express a truncated form of human tau (0N4R) that lacks the last 20 acids of the C-terminus, thus recapitulating the tau fragment produced by caspase cleavage (TauC3). Expression in the brain is driven by the promoter of the angiogenesis inhibitor 1 associated protein 4 (BAI1-AP4) gene. MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia No significant cell loss or astrogliosis in the brain. Age-dependent reduction in synaptic proteins (e.g. synaptophysin, PSD95) by 1.3 to 3 months of age. Hyperphosphorylated tau oligomers and aggregates. Learning and memory deficits by 1.3 to 3 months of age, as assessed by the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. No significant motor impairment. Normal lifespan. Unknown Kim et al., 2016 Yes
mTau-E10-KO Mixed background (BALB/c x C57B1/B6 x B6D2F1) MAPT Gene-targeted deletion of exon 10 in murine tau gene. MAPT: Knock-Out Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia No overt neuropathology at 12 months of age. Age-dependent deterioration of sensorimotor functions, including coordination deficits on the Rotarod and a decrease in muscle strength. No deficits in learning or memory. Humanized splicing pattern of murine tau, leading to the production of 3R tau rather than 4R tau. No anxiety phenotype. Mice are no longer available, but frozen ES cells are available through Lars Nilsson or Astrid Gumucio Gumucio et al., 2013 No
"Proaggregation mutant", TauΔK, hTau40Δ280 Unknown. MAPT MAPT K280del These are bigenic mice in which the TET-OFF system is used to temporally control human tau expression in the brain. Tetracycline transactivator (tTA) is downstream of the CAMKII-α promoter, driving expression in excitatory neurons in the forebrain. tTA in turn stimulates expression of the responder transgene, full-length human tau (hTau40, 2N4R) carrying the FTD-associated deletion, ΔK280. MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia Abundant pre-tangle pathology, but only rare mature tangles, and only at advanced ages. Tau pathology included mislocalization of tau to the somatodendritic compartment, aggregation, and hyperphosphorylation. Unknown. Available through Eva Mandelkow. Eckermann et al., 2007 Yes
Tau.P301L, hTau.P301L, Tau-4R-P301L, Tau(P301L) Thy1-hTau.P301L FVB/N MAPT MAPT P301L These transgenic mice overexpress the human Tau-4R/2N isoform bearing the P301L mutation under the control of the neuron-specific murine Thy1 promoter. MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia Pathologic hyperphosphorylation and conformational change of parenchymal tau in brain tissues starting at 7 months. Tangle-like pathology is mainly observed in the brain stem and spinal cord, and to a lesser extent in the midbrain and cerebral cortex. Age-dependent increase in total tau in CSF. Age-associated deficits in a passive avoidance task (starting at 5 months) and a novel object recognition task (starting at 9 months). At a young age (~2 months) outperforms wild-type littermates in object recognition memory. Progressive motor impairment and reduced activity, accompanied by increased clasping of hind and then forelimbs around seven months. Premature death around 8-12 months, preceded by weight loss, hyperkyphosis, reduced activity, and upper airway dysfunction. The CRO reMYND offers research services with this line.  Terwel et al., 2005 Yes
TauP301L-AAV C57BL/6 MAPT MAPT P301L An adeno-associated viral (AAV1) vector encoding TauP301L under the control of the cytomegalovirus enhancer/chicken β-actin promoter was injected bilaterally into the lateral ventricles of neonatal C57BL/6 mice. MAPT: Virus Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy Neurofibrillary tangles and gliosis, but no cortical neuron loss, at 6 months of age. Hyperactivity in the open field, decreased time spent in the center of open field, more time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze, and deficits in cued and contextual fear conditioning at 6 months of age. Unknown. Cook et al., 2015 Yes
Line PS19, PS19Tg B6;C3-Tg(Prnp-MAPT*P301S)PS19Vle/J (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 MAPT MAPT P301S Transgenic line expressing mutant human tau under the direction of the mouse prion protein (Prnp) promoter. The transgene codes for tau with four microtubule-binding domains and one N-terminal insert (4R/1N). MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia Neuron loss and brain atrophy by eight to 12 months, especially in the hippocampus and spreading to the neocortex and entorhinal cortex. Neurofibrillary tangles in the neocortex, amygdala, hippocampus, brain stem, and spinal cord. Neuroinflammation with microgliosis and astrocytosis. Impairments in spatial memory and learning ability in Morris water maze. Paralysis at seven to 10 months associated with a hunched-back posture followed by feeding difficulties. About 80 percent mortality by 12 months with median survival of about nine months. Clasping and limb retraction when lifted by the tail at three months, followed by limb weakness and brain atrophy. Homozygous females do not mate. The Jackson Lab: Stock# 008169; Live. Research with this model is available from QPS Austria. Yoshiyama et al., 2007 Yes
Triple transgenic, 3Tg B6.D2-Tg(Thy1-APPSwe, Prp-PSEN2N141I, Thy1-TauP301L) C57BL/6, DBA/2; backcrossed to C57BL/6 APP, MAPT, PSEN2 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), MAPT P301L, PSEN2 N141I (Volga German) PS2APP mice (line B6.152H) x tau mice (line B6.TauP301L). PS2APP were generated by co-injecting two transgenic constructs: human PSEN2 (N141I mutation) and human APP (Swedish mutation) driven by the mouse prion promoter and the mouse Thy1 promoter respectively. The transgenic TauP301L mouse (line pR5) expresses the human tau40 isoform driven by the Thy1.2 promoter. APP: Transgenic; MAPT: Transgenic; PSEN2: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Phosphorylated tau accumulation in the subiculum and the CA1 region of the hippocampus at 4 months. Neurofibrillary tangles in these regions as well as the amygdala. Amyloid plaques. Dystrophic neurites and neuropil threads containing abnormally phosphorylated tau. No overt neuronal loss. Impaired spatial learning in the Morris water maze at 4 months but impairment is not progressive between 4 and 12 months and appears to be independent of pathology. Cortex-specific deficiencies in oxidative phosphorylation. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Reduced cortical ATP. Increased superoxide anions and ROS compared to wild-type. No differences in APP expression, APP cleavage or Aβ accumulation compared to PS2APP. Levels of ptau422 increased in an age-dependent manner, but levels of ptau231 did not. Available through Laurence Ozmen Grueninger et al., 2010 Yes
TgTauR406W, Tau R406W-CAMKII B6SJL/F1; backcrossed to C57BL/6J MAPT MAPT R406W Human 4-repeat tau cDNA with the R406W mutation containing myc and FLAG tags at N-and C-terminal ends, respectively, and driven by the CaMK-II promoter. MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease Argyrophilic and congophilic tau inclusions in neurons of the forebrain with age. Detectable with Congo red, thioflavin-S and Gallyas silver stain. Congophilic tau inclusions also in the hippocampus and amygdala. Mainly straight tau filaments. Impairments in contextual and cued fear conditioning at 16–23 months compared with wild-type littermates. No detectable sensorimotor deficits. No differences from wild-type in body weight, sensorimotor reflexes (acoustic startle response), or motor coordination (accelerating rotarod and pole tests).  Attenuation of the Schaffer collateral-evoked neural response in hippocampal slices. Decrease in prepulse inhibition. Higher mortality. Unknown Tatebayashi et al., 2002 Yes
“Proaggregation mutant”, TauRDΔ, TauRD, TauRD/ΔK280, TauRDΔK C57BL/6 MAPT MAPT K280del Regulatable expression of an abbreviated human tau sequence (amino acids 244-372) encompassing the four microtubule-binding repeat domains and carrying the ΔK280 mutation. Transgene is driven by the forebrain-specific CAMKIIα promoter. TET-OFF system in which the transgene is regulated by the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) and turned off by administration of doxycycline. MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia Tau aggregates and tangles as early as 2-3 months after gene expression. Gallyas silver-positive neurons abundant in the entorhinal cortex and amygdala, spreading to the neocortex by 15 months. “Ballooned” neurons. Astrogliosis. Synaptic structural changes and reduced synaptic number. Hippocampal neuronal loss. Reversible learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance test. No significant motor deficit, although slight reduction in Rotarod performance. Missorting of tau into the somato-dendritic compartment. Calcium dysregulation at synaptic boutons. Deficits in synaptic plasticity, including LTP and LTD. Unknown Mocanu et al., 2008 Yes
MAPT V337M, Tg214 B6SJL/F1 MAPT MAPT V337M (Seattle) Human 4-repeat tau driven by the PDGF-β promoter. Tagged with myc and Flag on the N- and C-terminals respectively. MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia SDS-insoluble tau aggregates in hippocampus. Degenerating neurons in the hippocampus containing phosphorylated and ubiquitinated tau aggregates with β-sheet structure. Higher overall spontaneous locomotion than non-transgenic littermates in elevated plus maze. No differences in the Morris water maze. The amount of mutant tau varied, but was generally less than one tenth of endogenous tau levels. In hippocampal slices there was attenuation of the Schaffer collateral-evoked neural response. Unknown Tanemura et al., 2002, Tanemura et al., 2001 Yes
APPSwe-Tau, APPSwe(2576)/TauJNPL3, TAPP Tg(APPSWE)2576Kha; Tg(Prnp-MAPT*P301L)JNPL3Hlmc C57BL/6, DBA/2, SJL, SW Mixed Background APP, MAPT APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), MAPT P301L Generated by crossing Tg2576 mice, which have the transgene for human APP (isoform 695) carrying the Swedish mutation with mice expressing human MAPT (4 repeat) with the P301L mutation. APP; MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Gradual appearance of plaques; by 9 months plaques are scattered throughout the cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala similar to Tg2576. Tau pathology more extensive than JNPL3. Astrocytosis and microgliosis. Motor disturbances similar to JNPL3, with identical range in age of onset. Reduced vocalization and decreased grooming. Progressive hindlimb weakness. Hunched posture. Eye irritations. Some mice have the Pde6brd1 retinal degeneration mutation which can cause light sensitivity and/or blindness and may affect behavioral testing. Taconic: Stock# 2469 Lewis et al., 2001 Yes
Tau22 C57BL6/CBA; backcrossed to C57BL6 MAPT MAPT G272V, MAPT P301S Transgene containing the cDNA of the 412 amino acid isoform of human 4-repeat tau mutated at sites G272V and P301S under a Thy1.2 promotor. MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease A variety of tau pathologies starting at 3 months, including neurofibrillary tangle-like inclusions, rare ghost tangles, and paired helical filament-like structures. Hyperphosphorylation of tau on many epitopes (e.g. AT8, AT100, AT180, AT270, 12E8, tau-pSer396, and AP422) and mild astrogliosis. Increased anxiety and delayed learning from 3 months, and reduced spatial memory at 10 months. No changes in overall motor activity and no gross motor deficits. Increased depression-like and aggressive behavior, co-occurring with disturbances in nocturnal activity. Fertile with normal frequency and size of litters. Stably transmits the transgene to offspring. Deficits in hippocampal synaptic transmission. Available through Luc Buée Schindowski et al., 2006 Yes
Thy-1 mutated human tau, TAU 441, hTAU441, TAU441 V337M R406W C57Bl/6xDBA MAPT MAPT V337M (Seattle), MAPT R406W Transgene consists of human MAPT Tau441 (2N/4R) with mutations V337M and R406W under control of the Thy1 promoter. MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Increased total tau, and phosphorylated tau (Thr181, Ser199, Thr231) in amygdala and hippocampus starting at 3 months. Spatial memory deficits starting at 5 months (Morris water maze). Olfactory deficits at 5 months (Buried food test). No motor deficits (rota rod, beam walk) or depressive behavior (forced swim test). Olfactory deficits. The CRO QPS-Austria offers research services with this line. Flunkert et al., 2013 Yes
Trem2-/-PS19 C57BL/6 -TREM2tm1cln; B6;C3-Tg(Prnp-MAPT*P301S)PS19Vle/J C57BL/6 Trem2, MAPT MAPT P301S Trem2 KO (Colonna) mice were crossed with PS19 mice. TREM2 KO: Inactivation of the mouse Trem2 gene was achieved by targeted deletion of exons 3 and 4. PS19: express human MAPT (1N4R) with the P301S mutation, driven by the mouse prion protein (Prnp) promoter. Trem2: Knock-Out; MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease Microgliosis, astrogliosis, and brain atrophy in Trem2-/-PS19 mice are greatly attenuated compared with Trem2+/+PS19 animals. No data. Trem2 KO: available through Marco Colonna. PS19: The Jackson Lab: Stock# 008169; Live Leyns et al., 2017 Yes
hTau;Trem2−/− TREM2tm1(KOMP)Vlcg; B6.Cg-Mapttm1(EGFP)Klt Tg(MAPT)8cPdav/J C57BL/6 Mapt, MAPT, Trem2 Htau mice were bred to Trem2−/− mice (Trem2tm1(KOMP)Vlcg) to generate hTau;Trem2−/− and htau/Trem2+/+ mice. These mice were backcrossed for four generations, and maintained on a C57BL/6 background. Mapt: Knock-Out; MAPT: Transgenic; Trem2: Knock-Out Nasu-Hakola Disease, Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia Tau phosphorylation and aggregation in the cortex are enhanced in htau mice lacking TREM2, but reactive microglia are smaller and their processes have fewer branches. No data. Levels of stress-related protein kinases are elevated in the cortices and hippocampi of hTau;Trem2−/− compared with htau;Trem2+/+ mice. htau: The Jackson Lab: Stock# 005491, live. Trem2 KO: UC Davis KOMP Repository, Project VG10093, cryorecovery or sperm. Bemiller et al., 2017 Yes
Rat Models (3)
SHR MAPT SHR24 rats express a gene encoding amino acids 151-274 and 306-391 of human tau, driven by the mouse Thy1 promoter (the numbering of amino acids corresponds to that of the 441-amino acid isoform of human tau, variously referred to as tau 40, Tau-F, or 2N4R). MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Neurofibrillary tangles accumulate in cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and brainstem, beginning at 9 to 10 months. No neuron loss was observed in the hippocampus or cortex. SHR24 rats exhibit age-dependent impairments in several neurobehavioral tests; hind-limb clasping during the tail-hang test is one of the earliest abnormalities to appear, evident by 3.5 months of age. SHR24 rats have a shorter lifespan (approximately 14 months) than wild-type SHR rats (22-24 months). Unknown. Filipcik et al., 2012, Valachova et al., 2018 Yes
SHR MAPT SHR318 rats express a gene encoding amino acids 151-391 of human tau, driven by the mouse Thy1 promoter (the numbering of amino acids corresponds to that of the 441-amino acid isoform of human tau, variously referred to as tau 40, Tau-F, or 2N4R). MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Neurofibrillary tangles first appear at 9 months and are particularly prominent in the brainstem and spinal cord. Axonal degeneration is observed in the brainstem and spinal cord of 10- to 12-month animals. At 4.5 months, rats show normal learning, but deficits in spatial memory, in the Morris water maze. Reflexes and sensorimotor coordination are impaired at 7 months. SHR72 rats have a shorter lifespan (approximately 10–12 months) than wild-type SHR rats (22–24 months). No longer available. Zilka et al., 2006, Hrnkova et al., 2007 Yes
SHR MAPT SHR72 rats express a gene encoding amino acids 151-391 of human tau, driven by the mouse Thy1 promoter (the numbering of amino acids corresponds to that of the 441-amino acid isoform of human tau, variously referred to as tau 40, Tau-F, or 2N4R). MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Neurofibrillary tangles, demonstrated by Gallyas silver stain, were found the brainstems and spinal cords of terminal stage (7- to 8-month old) animals. Chromatolytic neurons and damaged axons were also observed at this stage. Sensorimotor deficits and loss of muscle strength are apparent at 3 months. This stage lasted about three months, and then rats experienced a rapid, dramatic decline in neurological function, succumbing within several days. SHR72 rats have a shorter lifespan (approximately 7-8 months) than wild-type SHR rats (22-24 months). Unknown. Koson et al., 2008 Yes

36 Visualizations

AD-related Research Models

Phenotypes Examined

  • Plaques
  • Tangles
  • Neuronal Loss
  • Gliosis
  • Synaptic Loss
  • Changes in LTP/LTD
  • Cognitive Impairment

When visualized, these phenotypes will distributed over a 18 month timeline demarcated at the following intervals: 3mo, 6mo, 9mo, 1yr, 15mo, 18mo+.

3xTg

Observed
  1. X
    Plaques at 26

    Extracellular Aβ deposits by 6 months in the frontal cortex, predominantly layers 4 and 5 and progress with age (Oddo et al., 2003).

  2. X
    Tangles at 52

    By 12 months extensive tau immunoreactivity in CA1 neurons of the hippocampus, particularly pyramidal neurons, later in the cortex. No tau pathology at 6 months (Oddo et al., 2003).

  3. X
    Gliosis at 30

    Increased density of GFAP immunoreactive astrocytes and IBA-1 immunoreactive microglia compared with wild-type mice at 7 months (Caruso et al., 2013). Development of gliosis may occur earlier.

  4. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 26

    By 6 months decreased LTP compared with wild type controls. Impairment in basal synaptic transmission. No change at 1 month of age (Oddo et al., 2003).

  5. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 17

    Cognitive impairment manifests at 4 months as a deficit in long-term retention and correlates with the accumulation of intraneuronal Aβ in the hippocampus and amygdala, but plaques and tangles are not yet apparent (Billings et al., 2005).

Absent
No Data
  • Neuronal Loss at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
APP, PSEN1, MAPT APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), MAPT P301L, PSEN1 M146V APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Transgenic; MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Age-related, progressive neuropathology including plaques and tangles. Extracellular Aβ deposits by 6 months in frontal cortex, more extensive by 12 months. No tau pathology at 6 months, but evident at 12 months. Synaptic dysfunction, including LTP deficits, prior to plaques and tangles.

Cognitive impairment by 4 months. Impairments first manifest as a retention/retrieval deficit and not as a learning deficit, and occur prior to plaques and tangles. Deficits in both spatial and contextual based paradigms. Clearance of intraneuronal Aβ by immunotherapy rescues the early cognitive deficits in a hippocampal-dependent task.

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AppNL-G-F/MAPT double knock-in

Observed
  1. X
    Plaques at 8

    Plaques observed at 2 months.

  2. X
    Gliosis at 16

    Astrogliosis and microgliosis observed by 4 months.

  3. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 52

    Deficits in the Y-maze test of working memory at 12 months of age.

Absent
  • Tangles at

    No neurofibrillary tangles observed up to 24 months of age.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    No neurodegeneration observed up to 24 months of age.

No Data
  • Synaptic Loss at

    No data.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
App, MAPT APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), APP I716F (Iberian), APP E693G (Arctic) App: Knock-In; MAPT: Knock-In Alzheimer's Disease

Amyloid plaques, plaque-associated neuritic dystrophy, and neuroinflammation, similar to AppNL-G-F.

Deficits in the Y-maze test of working memory, similar to AppNL-G-F.

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APP/PS1/rTg21221

Observed
  1. X
    Plaques at 35

    Cortical plaques observed between 8-10 months. Plaques larger than in control mice not expressing human tau.

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 36

    Neuronal loss observed adjacent to plaques relative to more distal areas.

  3. X
    Gliosis at 37

    Increased astrocytosis adjacent to plaques relative to more distal areas.

  4. X
    Synaptic Loss at 40

    Decreased synapse density adjacent to plaques relative to more distal areas.

Absent
  • Tangles at

    No tangles. Aggregates of misfolded and phosphorylated tau observed between 8-10 months.

No Data
  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

  • Cognitive Impairment at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
APP, PSEN1, MAPT APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), PSEN1: deltaE9 APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Transgenic; MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Tau accumulations, dystrophic neurites, astrocytosis, neuronal loss, and synapse loss were more pronounced adjacent to cortical plaques. Tangles were not observed.

No data.

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htau

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 39

    Aggregated tau and paired helical filaments detectable at nine months by immunoelectron microscopy, although paired helical filaments of aggregated insoluble tau can be isolated from brain tissue as early as two months. Tau first redistributes from axons to cell bodies. Hyperphosphorylated tau begins to accumulate by six months, and increases further by 13 and 15 months (Andorfer et al., 2003).

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 43

    Decrease in cortical thickness and reduced cell number between 10 and 14 months of age. Increased ventricle size increased from age eight months to 18 months. Decrease in the thickness of the corpus callosum (Andorfer et al., 2005).

  3. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 52

    In hippocampal slices, LTP induced by high frequency stimulation (HFS) was normal at four months but abolished by 12 months. LTP induced by theta burst stimulation (TBS) was normal at both ages. Paired-pulse ratio (PPR) was unaffected at four months, but increased at 12 months compared with controls, suggesting a decrease in probability of transmitter release (Polydoro et al., 2009).

  4. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 26

    Abnormal spatial learning in six-month-old mice compared with control mice (Phillips et al., 2011). Normal object recognition and spatial learning and memory by MWM at four months, but deficits by 12 months (Polydoro et al., 2009). Impaired burrowing relative to control mice occurs by four months (Geiszler et al., 2016).

Absent
No Data
  • Gliosis at

    Unknown.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT: Knock-Out; MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia

Age-associated tau pathology, including redistribution of tau to cell bodies and dendrites, phosphorylated tau, accumulation of aggregated paired helical filaments, and ultimately thioflavin-S positive neurofibrillary tangles. Pathology most severe in neocortex and hippocampus, and minimal in the brain stem and spinal cord. Some neuronal loss.

Normal object-recognition memory and spatial learning/memory (as assessed by the Morris Water Maze) at four months, but impaired at 12 months (Polydoro et al., 2009). 

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hTau-A152T

Observed
  1. X
    Neuronal Loss at 87

    Neuron loss in the hippocampus was observed by 20 months.

  2. X
    Gliosis at 17

    Astrocytosis, but no differences in microglia.

  3. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 74

    In the Morris water maze, performance was impaired after 17 months of age. Nest building was impaired at 10-14 months. Social interaction, anxiety, exploratory behavior, and motor functions were unaltered.

Absent
  • Tangles at

    Abnormal accumulations of soluble tau were observed, but not tangles or tangle-like structures.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    Unchanged at 20 months.

No Data
  • Plaques at

    No data.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT A152T MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy

Tangles or dense tau inclusions not observed. Abnormal accumulations of soluble tau. Age-dependent neuronal loss was observed in the hippocampus.

Age-dependent learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze. Nest building impaired. Social interaction, anxiety, exploratory behavior, and motor functions were normal.

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hTau-AT (hTau40-AT)

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 13

    Tangles in hippocampus, cortex, and spinal cord starting at 3 months with age-dependent increases. Hyperphosphorylation, conformation changes, and mislocalization.

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 52

    Neuron loss in the hippocampus and cortex at 12 months.

  3. X
    Gliosis at 43

    Astrocytosis and microgliosis at 10 months.

  4. X
    Synaptic Loss at 87

    Synaptophysin, but not PSD95, decreased in hippocampus and cortex at 12 months. By Golgi staining, spines unchanged in CA1 at 10 months, increased in CA3 at 12 months, and decreased in CA1 and CA3 at 16 months.

  5. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 70

    No change at 10 months but at 16 months deficits in learning and memory (Morris water maze).

Absent
  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    Unchanged at 12 months.

No Data
  • Plaques at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT A152T MAPT: Knock-In Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy

Tangles in hippocampus, cortex, and spinal cord at 3 months with age-dependent increases. Tau hyperphosphorylation, conformation changes, and mislocalization observed. Age-dependent loss of synapses.

Age-dependent learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze. Motor functions normal.

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hTau.P301S

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 17

    Neurofibrillary tangles detected as early as 4 months of age.

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 13

    Neuronal loss starting at 3 months. Loss is especially prominent in the spinal cord with notable loss of superficial cortical neurons as well (Hampton et al., 2010).

  3. X
    Gliosis at 22

    Astrocytosis, as measured by GFAP reactivity, in 6 month-old animals. Microglial activation in the brain stem and spinal cord of 5 month-old animals by OX42 staining (Bellucci et al., 2004).

  4. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 11

    Memory deficit starting at 2.5 months as assessed by the Morris water maze (Xu et al., 2014), but no deficit at 2 months (Scattoni et al., 2010).

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT P301S MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy

Age-dependent hyperphosphorylation of tau and conformational changes leading to neurofibrillary tanglelike pathology in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and spinal cord. Neurodegeneration, especially in the spinal cord, accompanied by astrocytosis.

Early motor impairment, including abnormal clasping and rotarod deficit at 4 months, with nearly complete deficit at 5 months. Deficits progress to severe paraparesis. Disinhibition and hyperactivity at 2 to 3 months.

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JNPL3(P301L)

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 20

    Neurofibrillary tangles develop in an age and gene-dose dependent manner; as early as 4.5 months in homozygotes and 6.5 months in heterozygotes. Tangles and Pick-body-like neuronal inclusions in the amygdala, septal nuclei, preoptic nuclei, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla, deep cerebellar nuclei and spinal cord (Lewis et al., 2000).

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 43

    Neuronal loss, especially in the spinal cord, most prominent in the anterior horn (Lewis et al., 2000).

  3. X
    Gliosis at 43

    Astrogliosis (as measured by GFAP reactivity) in brainstem, diencephalon, and basal telencephalon by 10 months (Lewis et al., 2000).

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
  • Cognitive Impairment at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT P301L MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Alzheimer's Disease

Age and gene-dose dependent development of neurofibrillary tangles as early as 4.5 months in homozygotes and 6.5 months in heterozyotes. Tangles and Pick-body-like inclusions in the amygdala, hypothalamus, pons, medulla, and spinal cord among other areas. Neuronal loss, especially in the spinal cord.

By 10 months, 90% developed motor and behavioral disturbances including limb weakness, hunched posture, decrease in grooming and vocalization.

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MAPT knock-in

Observed
Absent
  • Plaques at

    No amyloid plaques at 24 months of age.

  • Tangles at

    No neurofibrillary tangles at 24 months of age.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    Neurodegeneration not apparent up to 2 years of age.

  • Gliosis at

    No astrogliosis or microgliosis observed at 24 months.

  • Cognitive Impairment at

    At 12 months of age, MAPT knock-in mice perform similarly to wild-type mice in the Y-maze test of working memory (only males tested).

No Data
  • Synaptic Loss at

    No data.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT: Knock-In Alzheimer's Disease, Other Tauopathy

No evidence of increased neuroinflammation, neuronal death, or brain atrophy in MAPT knock-in mice, compared with wild-type mice.

MAPT knock-in mice perform similarly to wild-type mice in the Y-maze test of working memory.

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mThy-1 3R Tau (line 13)

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 34

    Pick-body like inclusions of aggregated tau appeared in the hippocampus and cortex by 8-10 months. Inclusions were positive for Bielchowsky silver stain but negative for Gallyas-silver stain and Thioflavin-S.

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 34

    Neuronal loss occurred by 8-10 months as evidenced by decreased NeuN staining in the dentate gyrus and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Neocortical volume also decreased.

  3. X
    Gliosis at 35

    Astrogliosis was seen by 8-10 months in the neocortex and hippocampus. Some GFAP+ astrocytes also contained 3R tau.

  4. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 26

    By 6-8 months memory impairment was evident as a failure to habituate to a novel environment. This deficit was not present at 3-4 months. At 8-10 months, transgenics also took longer than wild-type mice to find the hidden platform in the Morris water maze.

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
  • Synaptic Loss at

    Synapto-dendritic damage manifested as reduced dendritic density, reduced MAP2 immunoreactivity, and accumulation of 3R tau in dendrites.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT L266V, MAPT G272V MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Pick's disease, Alzheimer's Disease

Accumulation of 3R tau in neurons of the cortex and hippocampus. Pick body-like tau aggregates and neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cortex. Astrogliosis, with some 3R tau in GFAP-positive astrocytes. Synapto-dendritic changes and mitochondrial pathology.

Age-related memory and motor deficits as assessed by habituation to a novel environment, the Morris water maze, and the round beam test.

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PLB1-triple (hAPP/hTau/hPS1)

Observed
  1. X
    Gliosis at 52

    Increased inflammation (GFAP labelling) detected at 12 months in cortex and hippocampus (Platt, unpublished observation).

  2. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 26

    Impairments in long-term and short-term hippocampal plasticity. LTP following theta-burst stimulation decayed faster and paired-pulse facilitation was reduced relative to wild-type mice at both six and 12 months of age. Synaptic transmission impacted at 12 months.

  3. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 22

    Social recognition memory was impaired by five months and further impaired by 12 months. Similarly, object recognition memory was impaired by eight months. Spatial learning impairments were seen later; at 12 months deficits in spatial acquisition learning were seen in the open field water maze that were not apparent at 5 months.

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Sparse plaques out to 21 months of age. Only marginally increased compared with wild-types and overall very low compared to over-expression models. However, Aβ accumulated intracellularly and also formed oligomers.

  • Tangles at

    No overt tangle pathology; however, hyyperphosphorylated tau accumulated in the hippocampus and cortex from six months of age.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    Absent.

No Data
  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
APP, MAPT, PSEN1 APP V717I (London), APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), PSEN1 A246E, MAPT P301L, MAPT R406W APP: Multi-transgene; MAPT: Multi-transgene; PSEN1: Multi-transgene Alzheimer's Disease

Age-related neuropathology including intraneuronal and oligomeric Aβ accumulation and hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampus and cortex from six months. Minimal amyloid plaques up to 21 months. Subtle tau pathology, but no overt tangles. Cortical hypometabolism with increased metabolic activity in basal forebrain and ventral midbrain by FDG-PET/CT.

Cognitive deficits in recognition memory and spatial learning emerging between five and 12 months. Impairments in hippocampal plasticity.

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PS19 with humanized TREM2 (common variant)

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 37

    Tangles revealed using antibody PG5 at 9 months.

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 38

    At 9 months, atrophy of hippocampus and entorhinal/piriform cortex and pronounced ventricular expansion. Thinning of the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and pyramidal cell layer of the piriform cortex, compared with PS19 mice carrying TREM2-R47H.

  3. X
    Gliosis at 39

    Elevated expression of markers of astroglial and microglial reactivity, compared with PS19 mice carrying the R47H variant of TREM2.

  4. X
    Synaptic Loss at 40

    Fewer synapses and more dystrophic synapses, compared with PS19 mice carrying the R47H variant of TREM2.

Absent
No Data
  • Plaques at

    No data.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

  • Cognitive Impairment at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT, TREM2, Trem2 MAPT P301S MAPT: Transgenic; TREM2: Transgenic; Trem2: Knock-Out Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia

Brain atrophy by 9 months of age. Increased microgliosis, astrogliosis and synapse loss, compared with PS19 mice carrying TREM2 with the R47H mutation.

Not known.

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PS19 with humanized TREM2 (R47H)

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 36

    Tangles revealed using antibody PG5 at 9 months.

Absent
No Data
  • Plaques at

    No data.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    No data relative to wild-type mice, but at 9 months of age, the volumes of the hippocampus and entorhinal/piriform cortex are larger, and the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and pyramidal cell layer of the piriform cortex are thicker, in PS19-TREM2R47H mice, compared with PS19 mice carrying the common variant of human TREM2.

  • Gliosis at

    At 9 months of age, decreased expression of markers of astroglial and microglial reactivity, compared with PS19 mice carrying the common variant of TREM2, but no data relative to wild-type mice.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    At 9 months of age, more synapses and fewer dystrophic synapses, compared with PS19 mice carrying the common variant of TREM2, but no data relative to wild-type mice.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

  • Cognitive Impairment at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT, TREM2, Trem2 MAPT P301S, TREM2 R47H MAPT: Transgenic; TREM2: Transgenic; Trem2: Knock-Out Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia

Decreased brain atrophy, microgliosis, astrogliosis, and synapse loss, compared with PS19 mice carrying the common variant of TREM2.

Not known.

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rTgTauEC

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 78

    By 18 months of age, Gallyas silver-positive staining is observed, indicative of paired helical filaments. This is followed by thioflavin-S staining at 24 months. Tau pathology develops first in neurons of the medial EC expressing human tau, followed by neurons in the dentate gyrus, CA1 and CA2/3(de Calignon et al., 2012).

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 83

    Neuronal loss is detectable by 24 months of age in areas with transgene expression (e.g. layer II of the EC and parasubiculum), compared with age-matched mice expressing only tTA. Significant neuronal loss was not observed at 21 months (de Calignon et al., 2012).

  3. X
    Gliosis at 104

    Microglial activation and astrogliosis by 24 months of age, in conjunction with axonal degeneration and neuronal loss (de Calignon et al., 2012).

  4. X
    Synaptic Loss at 104

    By 24 months of age pre- and post-synaptic densities were reduced in the middle third of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus as measured by synapsin-1 and PSD-95 staining (de Calignon et al., 2012).

  5. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 70

    At 16 months of age, subtle differences in electrophysiological properties have been observed in the perforant pathway, including a decrease in LTP and an increase in the probability of neurotransmitter release (Polydoro et al., 2014).

  6. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 70

    Very mild and specific deficits in contextual fear conditioning at 16 months of age, but no deficits in the radial arm maze (Polydoro et al., 2014).

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT P301L MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease

Propagating tau pathology starting in the entorhinal cortex and spreading to regions functionally connected to the EC (e.g., dentate gyrus). Neurodegeneration and axonal degeneration, first in EC and parasubiculum. Gliosis and synaptic loss.

Subtle cognitive deficit in contextual fear conditioning, but not in the radial arm maze, at 16 months. Mild specific deficit in locomotor activity in the open field test.

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rTg(tauP301L)4510

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 17

    Pretangles as early as 2.5 months. Argyrophilic tangle-like inclusions in cortex by 4 months and in hippocampus by 5.5 months.

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 24

    Decreased (~60%) CA1 hippocampal neurons by 5.5 months with significant loss in brain weight. Progressive loss of neurons and brain weight in 7 and 8.5 month mice with ~23% of CA1 pyramidal cells remaining at 8.5 months. Gross atrophy of the forebrain by 10 months.

  3. X
    Synaptic Loss at 35

    Significant loss of dendritic spines at 8-9 months (~30% decrease in spine density in somatosensory cortex).

  4. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 11

    Retention of spatial memory (Morris Water Maze) became impaired from 2.5 to 4 months. No significant motor impairments up to 6 months. Spatial memory improved when transgene suppressed by dox.

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    LTP at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse is normal at 1.3 months, but impaired at 4.5 months.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT P301L MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia

Argyrophilic tangle-like inclusions in cortex by 4 months and in hippocampus by 5.5 months. Decreased CA1 neurons (~60 percent) by 5.5 months. Gross forebrain atrophy by 10 months. The number of CA1 neurons stabilized after a brief (six to eight week) suppression of transgenic tau.

Spatial memory impairments by 2.5 to 4 months. No significant motor impairment up to 6 months of age. When the transgene was suppressed with dox at 2.5 months, spatial memory improved.

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SHR24

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 38

    Argyrophilic neurofibrillary tangles accumulate in cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and brainstem.

  2. X
    Synaptic Loss at 60

    Decreased levels of synaptophysin and a decreased number of synaptic vesicles per synapse in animals at the end of the lifespan of this line.

Absent
  • Neuronal Loss at

    No neuron loss was observed in the hippocampi or cortices of male rats examined at 15 month of age.

No Data
  • Plaques at

    No data.

  • Gliosis at

    No data.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

  • Cognitive Impairment at

    Sensorimotor deficits and abnormal reflexes observed as early as 3.5 months, but no data available from cognitive tests.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Neurofibrillary tangles accumulate in cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and brainstem, beginning at 9 to 10 months. No neuron loss was observed in the hippocampus or cortex.

SHR24 rats exhibit age-dependent impairments in several neurobehavioral tests; hind-limb clasping during the tail-hang test is one of the earliest abnormalities to appear, evident by 3.5 months of age.

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SHR318

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 38

    Argyrophilic neurofibrillary tangles are particularly prominent in the brainstem and spinal cord.

  2. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 18

    At 4.5 months, rats show normal learning, but deficits in spatial memory, in the Morris water maze.

Absent
  • Neuronal Loss at

    Neuron numbers in the hippocampi and brainstem gigantocellular reticular nucleus do not differ between 10.5-month SHR318 rats and non-transgenic rats.

No Data
  • Plaques at

    No data.

  • Gliosis at

    No data.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    No data.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Neurofibrillary tangles first appear at 9 months and are particularly prominent in the brainstem and spinal cord. Axonal degeneration is observed in the brainstem and spinal cord of 10- to 12-month animals.

At 4.5 months, rats show normal learning, but deficits in spatial memory, in the Morris water maze. Reflexes and sensorimotor coordination are impaired at 7 months.

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SHR72

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 30

    Neurofibrillary tangles, demonstrated by Gallyas silver stain, are present in the brainstem and spinal cord.

  2. X
    Gliosis at 29

    Astrogliosis and microgliosis are present in brainstem regions bearing neurofibrillary tangles.

Absent
  • Neuronal Loss at

    Although neuron loss has not been documented, chromatolytic neurons and damaged axons were seen in the brains of 7-month animals, particularly in the brainstem reticular formation.

No Data
  • Plaques at

    No data.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    No data.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

  • Cognitive Impairment at

    Sensorimotor deficits and abnormal reflexes observed as early as 3 months, but no data available from cognitive tests.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Neurofibrillary tangles, demonstrated by Gallyas silver stain, were found the brainstems and spinal cords of terminal stage (7- to 8-month old) animals. Chromatolytic neurons and damaged axons were also observed at this stage.

Sensorimotor deficits and loss of muscle strength are apparent at 3 months. This stage lasted about three months, and then rats experienced a rapid, dramatic decline in neurological function, succumbing within several days.

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Tau35

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 35

    Abnormally phosphorylated tau detected at two months and by eight months tau was mislocalized and misfolded and dystrophic neurites were observed. Tangle-like structures observed in the hippocampus by 14 months.

  2. X
    Synaptic Loss at 61

    At 14 months synapsin1 protein levels were decreased but synaptophysin levels remained at wild-type levels.

  3. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 36

    In the Morris water maze, Tau35 had the same performance as wild-type animals at six months but developed progressive deficits by eight months. 

Absent
  • Gliosis at

    Gliosis was not observed at 14 months.

No Data
  • Plaques at

    Unknown.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    Cell death was not formally assessed, however, overt neuronal death was not seen in the hippocampus.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT: Transgenic Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy

Progressive tau pathology in the hippocampus, including abnormally phosphorylated and misfolded tau, mislocalized tau, and tangle-like structures. Dystrophic neurites.

Impaired spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze. Early motor impairments, including abnormal limb clasping, Rotarod deficits and decreased grip strength.

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Tau4RTg2652

Observed
  1. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 13

    Deficits in spatial learning and memory as indicated by performance in the Barnes maze at multiple time points (3, 6, 11 months of age).

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

  • Tangles at

    Absence of mature neurofibrillary tangles, but extensive pretangle pathology throughout the brain (e.g. phospho-tau).

  • Neuronal Loss at

    Absent.

No Data
  • Gliosis at

    Unknown.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy, Alzheimer's Disease

Extensive pretangle pathology throughout the brain (e.g. phospho- tau) but no mature neurofibrillary tangles and only mild oligomeric tau, restricted to the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Dystrophic neurites and axonal pathology (spheroids). No overt neuronal loss.

Motor deficits develop with age, including decreased grip strength and impaired Rotarod performance. Cognitive deficits, indicative of impaired spatial learning and memory, as assessed by the Barnes maze.

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Tau609 (Tau 10 + 16)

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 65

    Gallyas silver-positive intracellular inclusions of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates in the entorhinal cortex at 15 months, and in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex at 24 months, but not at 18 months.

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 65

    Significant loss of NeuN-positive neurons in layer II of the entorhinal cortex at 15 months, and in the hippocampal CA1 region at 24 months, compared with non-Tg controls. No difference in the hippocampus at 18 months.

  3. X
    Gliosis at 52

    At 12 months of age, Iba1-positive cells are observed. GFAP is observed at 24 months of age.

  4. X
    Synaptic Loss at 28

    Reduced synaptic density at 6 months of age in select hippocampal areas compared to non-Tg mice and those expressing wild-type human tau. Densities in other areas were comparable until later ages (i.e., 24 months).

  5. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 26

    Some changes in basal synaptic transmission and significant impairment of LTP evident by 6 months of age in some regions of the hippocampus.

  6. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 26

    Deficits in spatial reference memory by 6 months of age as measured by the Morris water maze. No difference from non-Tg littermates at 4 months of age.

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT IVS10+16 C>T MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease, Other Tauopathy

Aggregated tau in neurons of the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex at advanced ages. Intraneuronal accumulation of tau oligomers in the hippocampus. Neuronal loss in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. Gliosis. Some hippocampal areas affected by age-related synaptic dysfunction and reduced synaptic density.

Impaired spatial reference memory as measured by the Morris water maze by 6 months of age. 

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TauA152T-AAV

Observed
  1. X
    Neuronal Loss at 10

    Neuron loss in cortex, seen at 3 months.

  2. X
    Gliosis at 11

    Astrogliosis, but not microgliosis, seen at 3 months.

  3. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 12

    Deficits in contextual and cued fear conditioning, seen at 3 months.

Absent
No Data
  • Plaques at

    No data.

  • Tangles at

    No data.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    No data.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT A152T MAPT: Virus Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy

Neuron loss and astrogliosis were observed in the cortices of 3-month-old mice.

Compared with GFP-AAV controls, TauA152T-AAV mice showed deficits in contextual and cued fear conditioning, increased hyperactivity, and decreased rearing in the open-field test, and spent more time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. TauA152T-AAV mice also exhibited motor impairment on the Rotarod.

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TauC3 (Transgenic caspase-cleaved tau)

Observed
  1. X
    Synaptic Loss at 6

    Reduced levels of synaptic proteins as early as 1.3 months, including synaptophysin. Further reductions in 3 and 6-month-old animals.

  2. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 6

    Learning and memory impairments as early as 1.3 months in several behavioral tests including the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and novel object recognition.

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Amyloid plaques were absent.

  • Tangles at

    Neurofibrillary tangles were not observed; however, hyperphosphorylated tau occurred early in the form of oligomers and aggregates.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    No significant neurodegeneration by 12 months of age.

  • Gliosis at

    No significant astrogliosis in the hippocampus or cortex by 12 months of age.

No Data
  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia

No significant cell loss or astrogliosis in the brain. Age-dependent reduction in synaptic proteins (e.g. synaptophysin, PSD95) by 1.3 to 3 months of age. Hyperphosphorylated tau oligomers and aggregates.

Learning and memory deficits by 1.3 to 3 months of age, as assessed by the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. No significant motor impairment.

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TauΔK280 ("Proaggregation mutant")

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 104

    Mature tangles are observed only at advanced age (>24 months), but extensive pre-tangle pathology develops with as little as three months of transgene expression. This includes mislocalization of tau to the somatodendritic compartment, conformational changes indicative of aggregation, and hyperphosphorylation (e.g. Ser 262, Ser 356).

  2. X
    Synaptic Loss at 57

    Electron microscopy showed a moderate decrease in spine synapses in the CA1 region of the hippocampus following 13 months of gene expression.

  3. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 52

    Impaired hippocampal LTP in the CA1 and CA3 areas.

  4. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 70

    Cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze and in passive-avoidance paradigms.

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    Absent.

No Data
  • Gliosis at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT K280del MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia

Abundant pre-tangle pathology, but only rare mature tangles, and only at advanced ages. Tau pathology included mislocalization of tau to the somatodendritic compartment, aggregation, and hyperphosphorylation.

Unknown.

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Tau P301L

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 35

    Hyperphosphorylation, conformational changes, and aggregation of tau resulting in tangle-like pathology by 8 months.

  2. X
    Gliosis at 30

    Astrogliosis by 7 months.

  3. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 26

    Deficit in LTP in CA1 region of the hippocampus at 6 months, but enhanced LTP in the dentate gyrus at a young age (8-10 weeks).

  4. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 22

    Age-associated deficit in two cognitive tests that do not depend heavily on motor ability, the passive avoidance task (significant deficit starting at 5 months, but not 2 or 3 months of age) and a novel object recognition task (significant deficit at 9 months, but not at 2, 3, 5, or 7 months of age) (Maurin et al., 2014).

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
  • Neuronal Loss at

    Unknown.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown at advanced age. Young mice (1-2 months) have a significantly higher spine maturation index than controls. At 4-6 months, the spine maturation index remains high in the hippocampus, but is reduced to control levels in the cortex. Note, these results were generated using the progeny of Tau P301L x transgenic Thy1-YFP (Kremer et al., 2011).

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT P301L MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia

Pathologic hyperphosphorylation and conformational change of parenchymal tau in brain tissues starting at 7 months. Tangle-like pathology is mainly observed in the brain stem and spinal cord, and to a lesser extent in the midbrain and cerebral cortex. Age-dependent increase in total tau in CSF.

Age-associated deficits in a passive avoidance task (starting at 5 months) and a novel object recognition task (starting at 9 months). At a young age (~2 months) outperforms wild-type littermates in object recognition memory. Progressive motor impairment and reduced activity, accompanied by increased clasping of hind and then forelimbs around seven months.

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TauP301L-AAV

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 24

    Argyrophilic, Thioflavin S-positive neurofibrillary tangles in cortex and hippocampus.

  2. X
    Gliosis at 12

    Astrogliosis and microgliosis observed at 3 months.

  3. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 24

    Deficits in cued and contextual fear conditioning observed at 6 months.

Absent
  • Neuronal Loss at

    No cortical neuron loss at 6 months.

No Data
  • Plaques at

    No data.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    The accumulation of a PSD95 fragment suggests the possibility of synaptic abnormalities, although synaptic structure and function have not been assessed directly.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT P301L MAPT: Virus Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy

Neurofibrillary tangles and gliosis, but no cortical neuron loss, at 6 months of age.

Hyperactivity in the open field, decreased time spent in the center of open field, more time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze, and deficits in cued and contextual fear conditioning at 6 months of age.

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Tau P301S (Line PS19)

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 23

    Neurofibrillary tangles in the neocortex, amygdala, hippocampus, brain stem and spinal cord at six months with progressive accumulation (Yoshiyama et al., 2007).

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 39

    Neuron loss in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex by nine to12 months, as well as in the amygdala and neocortex becoming more severe by 12 months (Yoshiyama et al., 2007).

  3. X
    Gliosis at 11

    Microgliosis at three months, especially in the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. Increased microgliosis by six months in white and gray matter of the hippocampus, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, and spinal cord. Microglial activation precedes astrogliosis (Yoshiyama et al., 2007).

  4. X
    Synaptic Loss at 13

    Synaptophysin immunoreactivity decreased progressively from three to six months in the CA3 region of the hippocamus. Impaired synaptic function (Yoshiyama et al., 2007).

  5. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 26

    Reduced LTP in the CA1 region of the hippocampus at six months. Altered basal synaptic transmission (smaller fiber volley amplitude, fEPSP slopes, and amplitudes) (Yoshiyama et al., 2007). Impaired hippocampal LTP as measured in freely moving mice (Lasagna-Reeves, 2016).

  6. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 27

    Impairments in spatial learning and memory ability in the Morris water maze in six-month-old animals (Takeuchi et al., 2011). Impaired memory in assays of contextual fear conditioning (Lasagna-Reeves 2016).

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT P301S MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia

Neuron loss and brain atrophy by eight to 12 months, especially in the hippocampus and spreading to the neocortex and entorhinal cortex. Neurofibrillary tangles in the neocortex, amygdala, hippocampus, brain stem, and spinal cord. Neuroinflammation with microgliosis and astrocytosis.

Impairments in spatial memory and learning ability in Morris water maze. Paralysis at seven to 10 months associated with a hunched-back posture followed by feeding difficulties. About 80 percent mortality by 12 months with median survival of about nine months.

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TauPS2APP

Observed
  1. X
    Plaques at 17

    Rare amyloid plaques at 4 months, plaques become more abundant with age. By 8 months the number of amyloid plaques increases considerably in the subiculum and the CA1 region of the hippocampus (Grueninger et al., 2010).

  2. X
    Tangles at 70

    Abnormally phosphorylated tau is detectable at 4 months in both TauPS2APP and tau single transgenic mice especially in the subiculum, amygdala, and the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Tau pathology increases with age with numerous tangle-like deposits in the hippocampus confirmed by Gallyas silver staining at 16 months (Grueninger et al., 2010).

  3. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 17

    Impairment is not age-associated and does not progress from age 4 months to 12 months (Grueninger et al., 2010).

Absent
  • Neuronal Loss at

    No overt neuronal loss in the hippocampus at 16 months (Grueninger et al., 2010).

No Data
  • Gliosis at

    Unknown.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
APP, MAPT, PSEN2 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), MAPT P301L, PSEN2 N141I (Volga German) APP: Transgenic; MAPT: Transgenic; PSEN2: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Phosphorylated tau accumulation in the subiculum and the CA1 region of the hippocampus at 4 months. Neurofibrillary tangles in these regions as well as the amygdala. Amyloid plaques. Dystrophic neurites and neuropil threads containing abnormally phosphorylated tau. No overt neuronal loss.

Impaired spatial learning in the Morris water maze at 4 months but impairment is not progressive between 4 and 12 months and appears to be independent of pathology.

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Tau R406W transgenic

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 78

    Congophilic tau inclusions in a subset of forebrain neurons around 18 months of age. Detected by Congo red, thioflavin S, and Gallyas silver stain.

  2. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 70

    Impairments in the contextual and cued fear conditioning test at 16–23 months compared with wild-type littermates. No detectable sensorimotor deficits.

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
  • Neuronal Loss at

    Unknown.

  • Gliosis at

    Unknown.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT R406W MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease

Argyrophilic and congophilic tau inclusions in neurons of the forebrain with age. Detectable with Congo red, thioflavin-S and Gallyas silver stain. Congophilic tau inclusions also in the hippocampus and amygdala. Mainly straight tau filaments.

Impairments in contextual and cued fear conditioning at 16–23 months compared with wild-type littermates. No detectable sensorimotor deficits.

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TauRDΔK280 (“Proaggregation mutant”)

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 9

    Tau tangles and aggregates with as little as 2-3 months of transgene expression. Tangles start in the entorhinal cortex and amygdala and spread to the neocortex by 15 months. Heterogeneous tangle morphology, including flame-shaped.

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 22

    Neuronal loss in the dentate gyrus (granule neurons) following 5 months of transgene expression. Shrinkage of the molecular layer of the hippocampus.

  3. X
    Gliosis at 91

    Astrogliosis in the hilus region of the hippocampus after 21 months of transgene expression. Additional increases in GFAP-positive astrocytes in the entorhinal and piriform cortices.

  4. X
    Synaptic Loss at 41

    Hippocampal synaptic loss as indicated by multiple measures following 9.5 months of transgene expression. Reduced synaptophysin immunoreactivity and reduced number of spine synapses as measured by electron microscopy.

  5. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 43

    Multiple deficits in synaptic plasticity, including deficits in LTP and LTD, after 10 months of transgene expression. Functional changes are associated with structural synaptic changes, local calcium dysregulation, and a decrease in the synaptic vesicle pool.

  6. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 43

    Learning and memory impairments are apparent after 10 months of transgene expression as assessed by the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tasks.

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT K280del MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia

Tau aggregates and tangles as early as 2-3 months after gene expression. Gallyas silver-positive neurons abundant in the entorhinal cortex and amygdala, spreading to the neocortex by 15 months. “Ballooned” neurons. Astrogliosis. Synaptic structural changes and reduced synaptic number. Hippocampal neuronal loss.

Reversible learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance test. No significant motor deficit, although slight reduction in Rotarod performance.

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Tau V337M

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 48

    Fibrillar staining in the hippocampus of 11 month old animals by Congo red birefringence. Absent in 4 month old mice, indicating the formation of these neurofilament-like structures occurs between 4 and 11 months (Tanemura et al., 2001).

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 43

    Evidence of hippocampal neuronal degeneration in 10 month old animals: irregularly shaped neurons with tau pathology that stained with propidium iodide. As characteristics of apoptosis were not observed, the neurons were thought to be undergoing non-apoptotic atrophic degeneration (Tanemura et al., 2002).

  3. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 65

    In hippocampal slices there was an attenuation of the amplitude of Schaffer collateral evoked hippocampal depolarization (Tanemura et al., 2002).

  4. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 48

    Behavioral abnormalities measured in 11 month-old mice. They spent more time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze and had greater overall locomoter activity. No differences in the Morris water maze compared with non-transgenic mice, suggesting the transgenic animals retain spatial recognition abilities (Tanemura et al., 2002).

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
  • Gliosis at

    Unknown.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT V337M (Seattle) MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia

SDS-insoluble tau aggregates in hippocampus. Degenerating neurons in the hippocampus containing phosphorylated and ubiquitinated tau aggregates with β-sheet structure.

Higher overall spontaneous locomotion than non-transgenic littermates in elevated plus maze. No differences in the Morris water maze.

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Tg2576/Tau(P301L) (APPSwe-Tau)

Observed
  1. X
    Plaques at 39

    Plaques develop gradually with age. No plaques at 5 months. Very few small plaques at 6 and 7 months. By 9 months plaques scattered throughout the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala, continue to increase at 12 months. Similar distribution as Tg2576.

  2. X
    Tangles at 13

    Neurofibrillary tangles in the spinal cord and pons as early as 3 months, but more consistent and numerous by 6 months. Tangles morphologically similar to those in JNPL3 mice but older bigenic female mice had a marked increase in neurofibrillary tangles in limbic areas by 6 months, especially the olfactory cortex, entorhinal cortex and amygdala (Lewis et al., 2001).

  3. X
    Gliosis at 13

    Reactive astrocytes and microglia as early as 3 months in the hippocampus as measured by GFAP and CD45. Increased astrocytosis with age especially in limbic areas with the most neurofibrillary tangles. Microglia especially concentrated around plaques at 9 and 12 months (Lewis et al., 2001).

Absent
No Data
  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
APP, MAPT APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), MAPT P301L APP; MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Gradual appearance of plaques; by 9 months plaques are scattered throughout the cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala similar to Tg2576. Tau pathology more extensive than JNPL3. Astrocytosis and microgliosis.

Motor disturbances similar to JNPL3, with identical range in age of onset. Reduced vocalization and decreased grooming.

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THY-Tau22

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 13

    Heterozygous animals develop tau pathology starting at 3-6 months. Pathology becomes more severe and widespread with age. Neurofibrillary tangle-like inclusions occur (Gallyas and MC1+) along with rare ghost tangles and paired helical filament-like structures (Schindowski et al., 2006).

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 52

    Loss of cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus from 12 months as measured by DAPI staining and Nissl/cresyl-violet (Schindowski et al., 2006). Also, a significant reduction in the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunopositive cholinergic neurons in the medial septum has been reported (Belarbi et al., 2011).

  3. X
    Gliosis at 13

    Age-dependent increase in the number of GFAP+ astrocytes in the hippocampus (hilus, CA1, CA3), cerebral cortex, corpus callosum (Schindowski et al., 2006).

  4. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 39

    Altered paired pulse facilitation (PPF), a form of presynaptic short-term plasticity in 9-10 month old heterozygous animals: PPF increased at 10 ms. Also at this age, impaired maintenance of long term depression as compared with wild-type littermates (Van der Jeugd et al., 2011). Deficit in basal synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, but normal LTP (Schindowski et al., 2006).

  5. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 26

    Non-spatial memory affected as early as 6 months; spatial memory impaired only after 9 months (Van der Jeugd et al., 2013). Impaired appetitive responding (Lo et al., 2013).

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT G272V, MAPT P301S MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease

A variety of tau pathologies starting at 3 months, including neurofibrillary tangle-like inclusions, rare ghost tangles, and paired helical filament-like structures. Hyperphosphorylation of tau on many epitopes (e.g. AT8, AT100, AT180, AT270, 12E8, tau-pSer396, and AP422) and mild astrogliosis.

Increased anxiety and delayed learning from 3 months, and reduced spatial memory at 10 months. No changes in overall motor activity and no gross motor deficits. Increased depression-like and aggressive behavior, co-occurring with disturbances in nocturnal activity.

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TMHT (Thy-1 mutated human tau)

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 17

    Tangles at 4 months and progress with age.

  2. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 22

    Cognitive impairment by 5 months as measured by the Morris Water Maze.

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT V337M (Seattle), MAPT R406W MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Increased total tau, and phosphorylated tau (Thr181, Ser199, Thr231) in amygdala and hippocampus starting at 3 months.

Spatial memory deficits starting at 5 months (Morris water maze). Olfactory deficits at 5 months (Buried food test). No motor deficits (rota rod, beam walk) or depressive behavior (forced swim test).

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Trem2 KO (Colonna) x PS19

Observed
  1. X
    Gliosis at 36

    Microgliosis and astrogliosis by 9 months (the earliest age studied).

Absent
No Data
  • Plaques at

    No data.

  • Tangles at

    No data.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    No data.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    No data.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

  • Cognitive Impairment at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
Trem2, MAPT MAPT P301S Trem2: Knock-Out; MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease

Microgliosis, astrogliosis, and brain atrophy in Trem2-/-PS19 mice are greatly attenuated compared with Trem2+/+PS19 animals.

No data.

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Trem2 KO (KOMP) x htau

Observed
  1. X
    Gliosis at 24

    Microgliosis observed by 6 months, younger ages were not studied.

Absent
  • Neuronal Loss at

    Neuron loss not observed in cortex or hippocampal field CA3 at 6 months of age; later ages were not studied.

No Data
  • Plaques at

    No data.

  • Tangles at

    No data.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    No data.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

  • Cognitive Impairment at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
Mapt, MAPT, Trem2 Mapt: Knock-Out; MAPT: Transgenic; Trem2: Knock-Out Nasu-Hakola Disease, Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia

Tau phosphorylation and aggregation in the cortex are enhanced in htau mice lacking TREM2, but reactive microglia are smaller and their processes have fewer branches.

No data.

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