Research Models

Selected Results

4 Models

Name Other Names Strain Name Genetic Background Gene Mutation Modification Info Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition Other Phenotype Availability Primary Paper Visualization
Mouse Models (4)
APPSwe (line C3-3)/PSEN1(A246E)(line N-5), APP/PS1, APPswe + PS1 (A246E), APP + PS1, AP mouse, C3-3/N-5 B6C3-Tg(APP695)3Dbo Tg(PSEN1)5Dbo/Mmjax Origin: (C57BL/6J x C3H/HeJ)F2 APP, PSEN1 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), PSEN1 A246E Double transgenic mice; cross of mice expressing human PSEN1 with the A246E mutation driven by the mouse prion protein promoter with mice expressing chimeric APP (isoform 695) with the Swedish mutation driven by the mouse prion promoter. Chimeric APP was created by replacing the mouse Aβ sequence with the cognate human sequence. APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid plaques by 9 months, starting in the hippocampus and subiculum. Plaques later develop in the cortex; the striatum and thalamus are relatively spared. Amyloid pathology is more severe in females. Dystrophic neurites and gliosis in the cortex and hippocampus. Poor nest building. Reduced retention in a learned passive avoidance task. Increased immobility time in forced swim task. Age-associated impairment in acquisition and retention in the Morris water maze. No impairment in a position discrimination T-maze task. Increased irritability. The Jackson Lab: Stock# 003378; Cryopreserved Borchelt et al., 1997, Borchelt et al., 1996 Yes
APPxPS1, APP(V717I)x PS1(A246E), APP[V717I]x PS1[A246E], APP.V717I x PS1.A246E Tg(Thy1-APPLon)2Vln/0; Tg(Thy1-PSEN1*A246E)2Vln/0 Originally generated on FVB/N background; available at reMYND as C57BL/6xFVB/N APP, PSEN1 APP V717I (London), PSEN1 A246E The transgene overexpresses the mutant human amyloid protein precursor APP (isoform 695), which bears the London (V717I) mutation, and human presenilin-1 with the A246E mutation, both under the control of the neuron-specific murine Thy1 promoter. APP: Multi-transgene; PSEN1: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Soluble, oligomeric Aβ at 2 months and increases with age. Amyloid plaques at 6-9 months, earlier than APP(V717I) single transgenics. Plaques start in the subiculum and spread to the frontal cortex. Amyloid-associated inflammation. CAA pathology at 8 months; microbleeds at 12-15 months. Dystropic neurites containing hyperphosphorylated tau, but no tangle pathology. From the age of 5 months, spatial and non-spatial orientation and memory deficits by Morris Water Maze. Impaired associative learning, hyperactivity, anxiety, and aggression. The CRO reMYND offers research services with this line. Dewachter et al., 2000 Yes
hAPP/hTau/hPS1, PLB1(Triple) C57BL6 APP, MAPT, PSEN1 APP V717I (London), APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), PSEN1 A246E, MAPT P301L, MAPT R406W Targeted insertion of human APP and tau sequences at the HPRT site on the X chromosome, driven by mouse CaMKII-α. Human APP (isoform 770) with the Swedish and London mutations. Human tau (isoform 2N/4R, 441 amino acids) with P301L and R406W. APP/tau-expressing animals (PLB1-double) were crossed with hPS1 (A246E) transgenic mice (Borchelt et al., 1997) to generate the triple transgenic. APP: Multi-transgene; MAPT: Multi-transgene; PSEN1: Multi-transgene Alzheimer's Disease Age-related neuropathology including intraneuronal and oligomeric Aβ accumulation and hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampus and cortex from six months. Minimal amyloid plaques up to 21 months. Subtle tau pathology, but no overt tangles. Cortical hypometabolism with increased metabolic activity in basal forebrain and ventral midbrain by FDG-PET/CT. Cognitive deficits in recognition memory and spatial learning emerging between five and 12 months. Impairments in hippocampal plasticity. Litter size and overall health were normal. Mice spent more time awake at six months and had fragmented sleep. Quantitative EEG showed heightened delta power during wakefulness and REM sleep. Available through Bettina Platt Platt et al., 2011 Yes
Tg(Thy1-PSEN1*A246E)2Vln/0 FVB/N PSEN1 PSEN1 A246E Transgene human PSEN1 with the A246E mutation driven by the mouse Thy1 promoter. PSEN1: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Histologically normal up to 2 years old by hematoxylin-eosin, silver, and thioflavin-S staining. Learning and spatial memory were unaffected in the water maze test. Neither the escape latency nor escape pathway was different from PSEN1 wild-type mice at 1 and 9 months of age. Mice are more sensitive to kainic acid displaying greater KA-induced seizure activity and neuronal damage. LTP induced by a strong stimulus was not altered, but a weak stimulation at synapses between Schaeffer’s collaterals and CA1 pyramidal neurons elicited LTP only in mutant mice. No longer available through Paul van Dun Schneider et al., 2001 No

3 Visualizations

AD-related Research Models

Phenotypes Examined

  • Plaques
  • Tangles
  • Neuronal Loss
  • Gliosis
  • Synaptic Loss
  • Changes in LTP/LTD
  • Cognitive Impairment

When visualized, these phenotypes will distributed over a 18 month timeline demarcated at the following intervals: 3mo, 6mo, 9mo, 1yr, 15mo, 18mo+.

APPSwe/PSEN1(A246E)

Observed
  1. X
    Plaques at 39

    By 9 months of age, amyloid plaques develop in the hippocampus and subiculum, later extending to the cortex (Borchelt et al., 1997). The striatum and thalamus are relatively spared out to 18 months of age. Amyloid pathology is more severe in female mice, with a greater amyloid burden measured at 12 and 17 months of age (Wang et al., 2003).

  2. X
    Gliosis at 52

    By one year of age, reactive gliosis is observed in the cortex and hippocampus and is associated with dystrophic neurites (Borchelt et al., 1997).

  3. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 48

    Age-associated cognitive impairment, as measured by the Morris water maze, was observed in 11 to 12-month-old males. Both acquisition and retention were impaired. No impairment at 3-4 months of age. At both time points mice performed normally on a position discrimination task in the T-maze (Puoliväli et al., 2002).

Absent
  • Tangles at

    Not observed.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    There was no difference in neuronal numbers in the cingulate cortex compared with wild-type mice (Xiang et al., 2002).

No Data
  • Synaptic Loss at

    No data.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
APP, PSEN1 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), PSEN1 A246E APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Amyloid plaques by 9 months, starting in the hippocampus and subiculum. Plaques later develop in the cortex; the striatum and thalamus are relatively spared. Amyloid pathology is more severe in females. Dystrophic neurites and gliosis in the cortex and hippocampus.

Poor nest building. Reduced retention in a learned passive avoidance task. Increased immobility time in forced swim task. Age-associated impairment in acquisition and retention in the Morris water maze. No impairment in a position discrimination T-maze task.

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APP(V717I) x PS1(A246E)

Observed
  1. X
    Plaques at 17

    Plaques start in cortex, hippocampus and subiculum at 4-6 months.

  2. X
    Gliosis at 20

    Elevated GFAP, microglial activation, and other markers of brain inflammation increase as of 4.5 months.

  3. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 26

    Significant deficit in LTP in CA1 region of the hippocampus at 6 months.

  4. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 22

    From the age of 5 months, spatial and non-spatial orientation and memory deficits by Morris water maze and other tests. Also deficits in associative learning.

Absent
  • Tangles at

    Dystrophic neurites containing hyperphosphorylated murine tau, but no tangle pathology.

No Data
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
APP, PSEN1 APP V717I (London), PSEN1 A246E APP: Multi-transgene; PSEN1: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

Soluble, oligomeric Aβ at 2 months and increases with age. Amyloid plaques at 6-9 months, earlier than APP(V717I) single transgenics. Plaques start in the subiculum and spread to the frontal cortex. Amyloid-associated inflammation. CAA pathology at 8 months; microbleeds at 12-15 months. Dystropic neurites containing hyperphosphorylated tau, but no tangle pathology.

From the age of 5 months, spatial and non-spatial orientation and memory deficits by Morris Water Maze. Impaired associative learning, hyperactivity, anxiety, and aggression.

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PLB1-triple (hAPP/hTau/hPS1)

Observed
  1. X
    Gliosis at 52

    Increased inflammation (GFAP labelling) detected at 12 months in cortex and hippocampus (Platt, unpublished observation).

  2. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 26

    Impairments in long-term and short-term hippocampal plasticity. LTP following theta-burst stimulation decayed faster and paired-pulse facilitation was reduced relative to wild-type mice at both six and 12 months of age. Synaptic transmission impacted at 12 months.

  3. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 22

    Social recognition memory was impaired by five months and further impaired by 12 months. Similarly, object recognition memory was impaired by eight months. Spatial learning impairments were seen later; at 12 months deficits in spatial acquisition learning were seen in the open field water maze that were not apparent at 5 months.

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Sparse plaques out to 21 months of age. Only marginally increased compared with wild-types and overall very low compared to over-expression models. However, Aβ accumulated intracellularly and also formed oligomers.

  • Tangles at

    No overt tangle pathology; however, hyyperphosphorylated tau accumulated in the hippocampus and cortex from six months of age.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    Absent.

No Data
  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
APP, MAPT, PSEN1 APP V717I (London), APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), PSEN1 A246E, MAPT P301L, MAPT R406W APP: Multi-transgene; MAPT: Multi-transgene; PSEN1: Multi-transgene Alzheimer's Disease

Age-related neuropathology including intraneuronal and oligomeric Aβ accumulation and hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampus and cortex from six months. Minimal amyloid plaques up to 21 months. Subtle tau pathology, but no overt tangles. Cortical hypometabolism with increased metabolic activity in basal forebrain and ventral midbrain by FDG-PET/CT.

Cognitive deficits in recognition memory and spatial learning emerging between five and 12 months. Impairments in hippocampal plasticity.

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