Research Models

Selected Results

9 Models

Name Other Names Strain Name Genetic Background Gene Mutation Modification Info Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition Other Phenotype Availability Primary Paper Visualization
Mouse Models (9)
3xTg-AD, The LaFerla mouse B6;129-Psen1tm1Mpm Tg(APPSwe,tauP301L)1Lfa/Mmjax C7BL/6;129X1/SvJ;129S1/Sv APP, PSEN1, MAPT APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), MAPT P301L, PSEN1 M146V Single-cell embryos from mice with knock-in of PSEN1 with the PS1M146V mutation were injected with two human transgenes (APP with the Swedish mutation and MAPT with the P30IL mutation). Transgenes integrated at a single locus under the control of the mouse Thy1.2 promoter. APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Transgenic; MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Age-related, progressive neuropathology including plaques and tangles. Extracellular Aβ deposits by 6 months in frontal cortex, more extensive by 12 months. No tau pathology at 6 months, but evident at 12 months. Synaptic dysfunction, including LTP deficits, prior to plaques and tangles. Cognitive impairment by 4 months. Impairments first manifest as a retention/retrieval deficit and not as a learning deficit, and occur prior to plaques and tangles. Deficits in both spatial and contextual based paradigms. Clearance of intraneuronal Aβ by immunotherapy rescues the early cognitive deficits in a hippocampal-dependent task. The Jackson Lab; available through the JAX MMRRC Stock# 034830; Live Oddo et al., 2003 Yes
TauP301L-JNPL3 Tg(Prnp-MAPT*P301L)JNPL3Hlmc C57BL/6, DBA/2, SW Mixed Background MAPT MAPT P301L Transgene for human MAPT (4R0N) with the P301L mutation driven by the mouse prion promoter. MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Alzheimer's Disease Age and gene-dose dependent development of neurofibrillary tangles as early as 4.5 months in homozygotes and 6.5 months in heterozyotes. Tangles and Pick-body-like inclusions in the amygdala, hypothalamus, pons, medulla, and spinal cord among other areas. Neuronal loss, especially in the spinal cord. By 10 months, 90% developed motor and behavioral disturbances including limb weakness, hunched posture, decrease in grooming and vocalization. Eye irritiation, possibily due to carrying the Pde6brd1 retinal degeneration mutation carries Pde6brd1 mutation Taconic: Stock#2508 (homozygote)#1638 (heterozygote and wild-type) has been discontinued. Lewis et al., 2000 Yes
hAPP/hTau/hPS1, PLB1(Triple) C57BL6 APP, MAPT, PSEN1 APP V717I (London), APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), PSEN1 A246E, MAPT P301L, MAPT R406W Targeted insertion of human APP and tau sequences at the HPRT site on the X chromosome, driven by mouse CaMKII-α. Human APP (isoform 770) with the Swedish and London mutations. Human tau (isoform 2N/4R, 441 amino acids) with P301L and R406W. APP/tau-expressing animals (PLB1-double) were crossed with hPS1 (A246E) transgenic mice (Borchelt et al., 1997) to generate the triple transgenic. APP: Multi-transgene; MAPT: Multi-transgene; PSEN1: Multi-transgene Alzheimer's Disease Age-related neuropathology including intraneuronal and oligomeric Aβ accumulation and hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampus and cortex from six months. Minimal amyloid plaques up to 21 months. Subtle tau pathology, but no overt tangles. Cortical hypometabolism with increased metabolic activity in basal forebrain and ventral midbrain by FDG-PET/CT. Cognitive deficits in recognition memory and spatial learning emerging between five and 12 months. Impairments in hippocampal plasticity. Litter size and overall health were normal. Mice spent more time awake at six months and had fragmented sleep. Quantitative EEG showed heightened delta power during wakefulness and REM sleep. Available through Bettina Platt Platt et al., 2011 Yes
neuropsin-tTA x FVB-Tg(tetO-tauP301L)4510 4510 mice are on an FVB background. Neuropsin-tTA mice are on a C57BL/6 background. MAPT MAPT P301L Bigenic mice made by crossing an activator line, neuropsin-tTA, with a responder line, Tg(tetO-tauP301L)4510. The neuropsin promoter drives the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) transgene preferentially in a subset of entorhinal neurons. tTA drives expression of human tau (4R0N) with the P301L mutation. Transgene expression in bigenic mice is constitutive until suppressed by doxycycline. MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease Propagating tau pathology starting in the entorhinal cortex and spreading to regions functionally connected to the EC (e.g., dentate gyrus). Neurodegeneration and axonal degeneration, first in EC and parasubiculum. Gliosis and synaptic loss. Subtle cognitive deficit in contextual fear conditioning, but not in the radial arm maze, at 16 months. Mild specific deficit in locomotor activity in the open field test. No apparent change in anxiety as assessed by the open field test. Reduced Arc induction in the hippocampus after contextual fear conditioning. Subtle differences in basal synaptic transmission with enhanced axonal excitability. de Calignon et al., 2012 Yes
rTg4510, rTg(tetO-TauP301L)4510, Tau P301L 129S6.Cg-Tg(Camk2a-tTA)1Mmay/JlwsJ; Fgf14Tg(tetO-MAPT*P301L)4510Kha/J. Formerly: 129S6.Cg-Tg(Camk2a-tTA)1Mmay/JlwsJ; FVB-Tg(tetO-MAPT*P301L)#Kha/JlwsJ Mixed: 129S6 (activator) X FVB (responder) MAPT MAPT P301L Bi-transgenic mice are made by crossing an activator line, CaMKIIα-tTA, with a responder line, Tg(tetO-tauP301L)4510. The CaMKIIα promoter drives the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) transgene preferentially in forebrain neurons. tTA drives expression of human tau (4R0N) with the P301L mutation. Transgene expression in bi-transgenic mice is constitutive until suppressed by doxycycline. MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia Argyrophilic tangle-like inclusions in cortex by 4 months and in hippocampus by 5.5 months. Decreased CA1 neurons (~60 percent) by 5.5 months. Gross forebrain atrophy by 10 months. The number of CA1 neurons stabilized after a brief (six to eight week) suppression of transgenic tau. Spatial memory impairments by 2.5 to 4 months. No significant motor impairment up to 6 months of age. When the transgene was suppressed with dox at 2.5 months, spatial memory improved. Homozygous mice are not viable. It should be noted that disruption of an endogenous mouse gene, caused by random insertion of the MAPT transgene, significantly contributes to the neuropathological and neurodegenerative phenotypes observed in rTg4510 mice 4510 responder line: The Jackson Lab: Stock# 015815; Activator line: The Jackson Lab: Stock# 016198. Santacruz et al., 2005, Ramsden et al., 2005, Gamache et al., 2019 Yes
Tau.P301L, hTau.P301L, Tau-4R-P301L, Tau(P301L) Thy1-hTau.P301L FVB/N MAPT MAPT P301L These transgenic mice overexpress the human Tau-4R/2N isoform bearing the P301L mutation under the control of the neuron-specific murine Thy1 promoter. MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia Pathologic hyperphosphorylation and conformational change of parenchymal tau in brain tissues starting at 7 months. Tangle-like pathology is mainly observed in the brain stem and spinal cord, and to a lesser extent in the midbrain and cerebral cortex. Age-dependent increase in total tau in CSF. Age-associated deficits in a passive avoidance task (starting at 5 months) and a novel object recognition task (starting at 9 months). At a young age (~2 months) outperforms wild-type littermates in object recognition memory. Progressive motor impairment and reduced activity, accompanied by increased clasping of hind and then forelimbs around seven months. Premature death around 8-12 months, preceded by weight loss, hyperkyphosis, reduced activity, and upper airway dysfunction. The CRO reMYND offers research services with this line.  Terwel et al., 2005 Yes
TauP301L-AAV C57BL/6 MAPT MAPT P301L An adeno-associated viral (AAV1) vector encoding TauP301L under the control of the cytomegalovirus enhancer/chicken β-actin promoter was injected bilaterally into the lateral ventricles of neonatal C57BL/6 mice. MAPT: Virus Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy Neurofibrillary tangles and gliosis, but no cortical neuron loss, at 6 months of age. Hyperactivity in the open field, decreased time spent in the center of open field, more time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze, and deficits in cued and contextual fear conditioning at 6 months of age. Unknown. Cook et al., 2015 Yes
Triple transgenic, 3Tg B6.D2-Tg(Thy1-APPSwe, Prp-PSEN2N141I, Thy1-TauP301L) C57BL/6, DBA/2; backcrossed to C57BL/6 APP, MAPT, PSEN2 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), MAPT P301L, PSEN2 N141I (Volga German) PS2APP mice (line B6.152H) x tau mice (line B6.TauP301L). PS2APP were generated by co-injecting two transgenic constructs: human PSEN2 (N141I mutation) and human APP (Swedish mutation) driven by the mouse prion promoter and the mouse Thy1 promoter respectively. The transgenic TauP301L mouse (line pR5) expresses the human tau40 isoform driven by the Thy1.2 promoter. APP: Transgenic; MAPT: Transgenic; PSEN2: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Phosphorylated tau accumulation in the subiculum and the CA1 region of the hippocampus at 4 months. Neurofibrillary tangles in these regions as well as the amygdala. Amyloid plaques. Dystrophic neurites and neuropil threads containing abnormally phosphorylated tau. No overt neuronal loss. Impaired spatial learning in the Morris water maze at 4 months but impairment is not progressive between 4 and 12 months and appears to be independent of pathology. Cortex-specific deficiencies in oxidative phosphorylation. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Reduced cortical ATP. Increased superoxide anions and ROS compared to wild-type. No differences in APP expression, APP cleavage or Aβ accumulation compared to PS2APP. Levels of ptau422 increased in an age-dependent manner, but levels of ptau231 did not. Available through Laurence Ozmen Grueninger et al., 2010 Yes
APPSwe-Tau, APPSwe(2576)/TauJNPL3, TAPP Tg(APPSWE)2576Kha; Tg(Prnp-MAPT*P301L)JNPL3Hlmc C57BL/6, DBA/2, SJL, SW Mixed Background APP, MAPT APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), MAPT P301L Generated by crossing Tg2576 mice, which have the transgene for human APP (isoform 695) carrying the Swedish mutation with mice expressing human MAPT (4 repeat) with the P301L mutation. APP; MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Gradual appearance of plaques; by 9 months plaques are scattered throughout the cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala similar to Tg2576. Tau pathology more extensive than JNPL3. Astrocytosis and microgliosis. Motor disturbances similar to JNPL3, with identical range in age of onset. Reduced vocalization and decreased grooming. Progressive hindlimb weakness. Hunched posture. Eye irritations. Some mice have the Pde6brd1 retinal degeneration mutation which can cause light sensitivity and/or blindness and may affect behavioral testing. Taconic: Stock# 2469 Lewis et al., 2001 Yes

9 Visualizations

AD-related Research Models

Phenotypes Examined

  • Plaques
  • Tangles
  • Neuronal Loss
  • Gliosis
  • Synaptic Loss
  • Changes in LTP/LTD
  • Cognitive Impairment

When visualized, these phenotypes will distributed over a 18 month timeline demarcated at the following intervals: 3mo, 6mo, 9mo, 1yr, 15mo, 18mo+.

3xTg

Observed
  1. X
    Plaques at 26

    Extracellular Aβ deposits by 6 months in the frontal cortex, predominantly layers 4 and 5 and progress with age (Oddo et al., 2003).

  2. X
    Tangles at 52

    By 12 months extensive tau immunoreactivity in CA1 neurons of the hippocampus, particularly pyramidal neurons, later in the cortex. No tau pathology at 6 months (Oddo et al., 2003).

  3. X
    Gliosis at 30

    Increased density of GFAP immunoreactive astrocytes and IBA-1 immunoreactive microglia compared with wild-type mice at 7 months (Caruso et al., 2013). Development of gliosis may occur earlier.

  4. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 26

    By 6 months decreased LTP compared with wild type controls. Impairment in basal synaptic transmission. No change at 1 month of age (Oddo et al., 2003).

  5. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 17

    Cognitive impairment manifests at 4 months as a deficit in long-term retention and correlates with the accumulation of intraneuronal Aβ in the hippocampus and amygdala, but plaques and tangles are not yet apparent (Billings et al., 2005).

Absent
No Data
  • Neuronal Loss at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
APP, PSEN1, MAPT APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), MAPT P301L, PSEN1 M146V APP: Transgenic; PSEN1: Transgenic; MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Age-related, progressive neuropathology including plaques and tangles. Extracellular Aβ deposits by 6 months in frontal cortex, more extensive by 12 months. No tau pathology at 6 months, but evident at 12 months. Synaptic dysfunction, including LTP deficits, prior to plaques and tangles.

Cognitive impairment by 4 months. Impairments first manifest as a retention/retrieval deficit and not as a learning deficit, and occur prior to plaques and tangles. Deficits in both spatial and contextual based paradigms. Clearance of intraneuronal Aβ by immunotherapy rescues the early cognitive deficits in a hippocampal-dependent task.

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JNPL3(P301L)

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 20

    Neurofibrillary tangles develop in an age and gene-dose dependent manner; as early as 4.5 months in homozygotes and 6.5 months in heterozygotes. Tangles and Pick-body-like neuronal inclusions in the amygdala, septal nuclei, preoptic nuclei, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla, deep cerebellar nuclei and spinal cord (Lewis et al., 2000).

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 43

    Neuronal loss, especially in the spinal cord, most prominent in the anterior horn (Lewis et al., 2000).

  3. X
    Gliosis at 43

    Astrogliosis (as measured by GFAP reactivity) in brainstem, diencephalon, and basal telencephalon by 10 months (Lewis et al., 2000).

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
  • Cognitive Impairment at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT P301L MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Alzheimer's Disease

Age and gene-dose dependent development of neurofibrillary tangles as early as 4.5 months in homozygotes and 6.5 months in heterozyotes. Tangles and Pick-body-like inclusions in the amygdala, hypothalamus, pons, medulla, and spinal cord among other areas. Neuronal loss, especially in the spinal cord.

By 10 months, 90% developed motor and behavioral disturbances including limb weakness, hunched posture, decrease in grooming and vocalization.

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PLB1-triple (hAPP/hTau/hPS1)

Observed
  1. X
    Gliosis at 52

    Increased inflammation (GFAP labelling) detected at 12 months in cortex and hippocampus (Platt, unpublished observation).

  2. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 26

    Impairments in long-term and short-term hippocampal plasticity. LTP following theta-burst stimulation decayed faster and paired-pulse facilitation was reduced relative to wild-type mice at both six and 12 months of age. Synaptic transmission impacted at 12 months.

  3. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 22

    Social recognition memory was impaired by five months and further impaired by 12 months. Similarly, object recognition memory was impaired by eight months. Spatial learning impairments were seen later; at 12 months deficits in spatial acquisition learning were seen in the open field water maze that were not apparent at 5 months.

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Sparse plaques out to 21 months of age. Only marginally increased compared with wild-types and overall very low compared to over-expression models. However, Aβ accumulated intracellularly and also formed oligomers.

  • Tangles at

    No overt tangle pathology; however, hyyperphosphorylated tau accumulated in the hippocampus and cortex from six months of age.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    Absent.

No Data
  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
APP, MAPT, PSEN1 APP V717I (London), APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), PSEN1 A246E, MAPT P301L, MAPT R406W APP: Multi-transgene; MAPT: Multi-transgene; PSEN1: Multi-transgene Alzheimer's Disease

Age-related neuropathology including intraneuronal and oligomeric Aβ accumulation and hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampus and cortex from six months. Minimal amyloid plaques up to 21 months. Subtle tau pathology, but no overt tangles. Cortical hypometabolism with increased metabolic activity in basal forebrain and ventral midbrain by FDG-PET/CT.

Cognitive deficits in recognition memory and spatial learning emerging between five and 12 months. Impairments in hippocampal plasticity.

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rTgTauEC

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 78

    By 18 months of age, Gallyas silver-positive staining is observed, indicative of paired helical filaments. This is followed by thioflavin-S staining at 24 months. Tau pathology develops first in neurons of the medial EC expressing human tau, followed by neurons in the dentate gyrus, CA1 and CA2/3(de Calignon et al., 2012).

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 83

    Neuronal loss is detectable by 24 months of age in areas with transgene expression (e.g. layer II of the EC and parasubiculum), compared with age-matched mice expressing only tTA. Significant neuronal loss was not observed at 21 months (de Calignon et al., 2012).

  3. X
    Gliosis at 104

    Microglial activation and astrogliosis by 24 months of age, in conjunction with axonal degeneration and neuronal loss (de Calignon et al., 2012).

  4. X
    Synaptic Loss at 104

    By 24 months of age pre- and post-synaptic densities were reduced in the middle third of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus as measured by synapsin-1 and PSD-95 staining (de Calignon et al., 2012).

  5. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 70

    At 16 months of age, subtle differences in electrophysiological properties have been observed in the perforant pathway, including a decrease in LTP and an increase in the probability of neurotransmitter release (Polydoro et al., 2014).

  6. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 70

    Very mild and specific deficits in contextual fear conditioning at 16 months of age, but no deficits in the radial arm maze (Polydoro et al., 2014).

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT P301L MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease

Propagating tau pathology starting in the entorhinal cortex and spreading to regions functionally connected to the EC (e.g., dentate gyrus). Neurodegeneration and axonal degeneration, first in EC and parasubiculum. Gliosis and synaptic loss.

Subtle cognitive deficit in contextual fear conditioning, but not in the radial arm maze, at 16 months. Mild specific deficit in locomotor activity in the open field test.

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rTg(tauP301L)4510

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 17

    Pretangles as early as 2.5 months. Argyrophilic tangle-like inclusions in cortex by 4 months and in hippocampus by 5.5 months.

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 24

    Decreased (~60%) CA1 hippocampal neurons by 5.5 months with significant loss in brain weight. Progressive loss of neurons and brain weight in 7 and 8.5 month mice with ~23% of CA1 pyramidal cells remaining at 8.5 months. Gross atrophy of the forebrain by 10 months.

  3. X
    Synaptic Loss at 35

    Significant loss of dendritic spines at 8-9 months (~30% decrease in spine density in somatosensory cortex).

  4. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 11

    Retention of spatial memory (Morris Water Maze) became impaired from 2.5 to 4 months. No significant motor impairments up to 6 months. Spatial memory improved when transgene suppressed by dox.

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    LTP at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse is normal at 1.3 months, but impaired at 4.5 months.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT P301L MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia

Argyrophilic tangle-like inclusions in cortex by 4 months and in hippocampus by 5.5 months. Decreased CA1 neurons (~60 percent) by 5.5 months. Gross forebrain atrophy by 10 months. The number of CA1 neurons stabilized after a brief (six to eight week) suppression of transgenic tau.

Spatial memory impairments by 2.5 to 4 months. No significant motor impairment up to 6 months of age. When the transgene was suppressed with dox at 2.5 months, spatial memory improved.

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Tau P301L

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 35

    Hyperphosphorylation, conformational changes, and aggregation of tau resulting in tangle-like pathology by 8 months.

  2. X
    Gliosis at 30

    Astrogliosis by 7 months.

  3. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 26

    Deficit in LTP in CA1 region of the hippocampus at 6 months, but enhanced LTP in the dentate gyrus at a young age (8-10 weeks).

  4. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 22

    Age-associated deficit in two cognitive tests that do not depend heavily on motor ability, the passive avoidance task (significant deficit starting at 5 months, but not 2 or 3 months of age) and a novel object recognition task (significant deficit at 9 months, but not at 2, 3, 5, or 7 months of age) (Maurin et al., 2014).

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
  • Neuronal Loss at

    Unknown.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown at advanced age. Young mice (1-2 months) have a significantly higher spine maturation index than controls. At 4-6 months, the spine maturation index remains high in the hippocampus, but is reduced to control levels in the cortex. Note, these results were generated using the progeny of Tau P301L x transgenic Thy1-YFP (Kremer et al., 2011).

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT P301L MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia

Pathologic hyperphosphorylation and conformational change of parenchymal tau in brain tissues starting at 7 months. Tangle-like pathology is mainly observed in the brain stem and spinal cord, and to a lesser extent in the midbrain and cerebral cortex. Age-dependent increase in total tau in CSF.

Age-associated deficits in a passive avoidance task (starting at 5 months) and a novel object recognition task (starting at 9 months). At a young age (~2 months) outperforms wild-type littermates in object recognition memory. Progressive motor impairment and reduced activity, accompanied by increased clasping of hind and then forelimbs around seven months.

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TauP301L-AAV

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 24

    Argyrophilic, Thioflavin S-positive neurofibrillary tangles in cortex and hippocampus.

  2. X
    Gliosis at 12

    Astrogliosis and microgliosis observed at 3 months.

  3. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 24

    Deficits in cued and contextual fear conditioning observed at 6 months.

Absent
  • Neuronal Loss at

    No cortical neuron loss at 6 months.

No Data
  • Plaques at

    No data.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    The accumulation of a PSD95 fragment suggests the possibility of synaptic abnormalities, although synaptic structure and function have not been assessed directly.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT P301L MAPT: Virus Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy

Neurofibrillary tangles and gliosis, but no cortical neuron loss, at 6 months of age.

Hyperactivity in the open field, decreased time spent in the center of open field, more time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze, and deficits in cued and contextual fear conditioning at 6 months of age.

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TauPS2APP

Observed
  1. X
    Plaques at 17

    Rare amyloid plaques at 4 months, plaques become more abundant with age. By 8 months the number of amyloid plaques increases considerably in the subiculum and the CA1 region of the hippocampus (Grueninger et al., 2010).

  2. X
    Tangles at 70

    Abnormally phosphorylated tau is detectable at 4 months in both TauPS2APP and tau single transgenic mice especially in the subiculum, amygdala, and the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Tau pathology increases with age with numerous tangle-like deposits in the hippocampus confirmed by Gallyas silver staining at 16 months (Grueninger et al., 2010).

  3. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 17

    Impairment is not age-associated and does not progress from age 4 months to 12 months (Grueninger et al., 2010).

Absent
  • Neuronal Loss at

    No overt neuronal loss in the hippocampus at 16 months (Grueninger et al., 2010).

No Data
  • Gliosis at

    Unknown.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
APP, MAPT, PSEN2 APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), MAPT P301L, PSEN2 N141I (Volga German) APP: Transgenic; MAPT: Transgenic; PSEN2: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Phosphorylated tau accumulation in the subiculum and the CA1 region of the hippocampus at 4 months. Neurofibrillary tangles in these regions as well as the amygdala. Amyloid plaques. Dystrophic neurites and neuropil threads containing abnormally phosphorylated tau. No overt neuronal loss.

Impaired spatial learning in the Morris water maze at 4 months but impairment is not progressive between 4 and 12 months and appears to be independent of pathology.

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Tg2576/Tau(P301L) (APPSwe-Tau)

Observed
  1. X
    Plaques at 39

    Plaques develop gradually with age. No plaques at 5 months. Very few small plaques at 6 and 7 months. By 9 months plaques scattered throughout the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala, continue to increase at 12 months. Similar distribution as Tg2576.

  2. X
    Tangles at 13

    Neurofibrillary tangles in the spinal cord and pons as early as 3 months, but more consistent and numerous by 6 months. Tangles morphologically similar to those in JNPL3 mice but older bigenic female mice had a marked increase in neurofibrillary tangles in limbic areas by 6 months, especially the olfactory cortex, entorhinal cortex and amygdala (Lewis et al., 2001).

  3. X
    Gliosis at 13

    Reactive astrocytes and microglia as early as 3 months in the hippocampus as measured by GFAP and CD45. Increased astrocytosis with age especially in limbic areas with the most neurofibrillary tangles. Microglia especially concentrated around plaques at 9 and 12 months (Lewis et al., 2001).

Absent
No Data
  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
APP, MAPT APP KM670/671NL (Swedish), MAPT P301L APP; MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease

Gradual appearance of plaques; by 9 months plaques are scattered throughout the cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala similar to Tg2576. Tau pathology more extensive than JNPL3. Astrocytosis and microgliosis.

Motor disturbances similar to JNPL3, with identical range in age of onset. Reduced vocalization and decreased grooming.

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