Research Models

Selected Results

6 Models

Name Other Names Strain Name Genetic Background Gene Mutation Modification Info Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition Other Phenotype Availability Primary Paper Visualization
Mouse Models (6)
Tau.P301S, hTAU[P301S], tau[P301S] Thy1-hTau.P301S (CBA.C57BL/6) CBAxC57BL/6 MAPT MAPT P301S Transgenic mice overexpressing a human tau isoform that is 383 amino acids long with four microtubule-binding repeat domains and without N-terminal inserts (4R/0N). Site-directed mutagenesis was used to introduce the P301S mutation. Transgene is under the control of the neuron-specific murine Thy-1 promoter. MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy Age-dependent hyperphosphorylation of tau and conformational changes leading to neurofibrillary tanglelike pathology in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and spinal cord. Neurodegeneration, especially in the spinal cord, accompanied by astrocytosis. Early motor impairment, including abnormal clasping and rotarod deficit at 4 months, with nearly complete deficit at 5 months. Deficits progress to severe paraparesis. Disinhibition and hyperactivity at 2 to 3 months. Muscle weakness, tremor. Frequent eye inflammation. Available for academic use from Michel Goedert and for commercial use from LifeArc. The CRO reMYND offers research services with this line. Allen et al., 2002 Yes
PS19-TREM2CV, PS19-T2CV C57BL/6 MAPT, TREM2, Trem2 MAPT P301S These mice carry a human MAPT transgene with the P301S mutation linked to frontotemporal dementia and a BAC transgene encoding the common variant of human TREM2, on a mouse-Trem2-null background. MAPT: Transgenic; TREM2: Transgenic; Trem2: Knock-Out Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia Brain atrophy by 9 months of age. Increased microgliosis, astrogliosis and synapse loss, compared with PS19 mice carrying TREM2 with the R47H mutation. Not known. Increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and DAM (disease-associated microglia) genes, compared with PS19 mice carrying TREM2 with the R47H mutation. PS19 mice are available from The Jackson Laboratory (Stock# 008169). TREM2 mice are available through Marco Colonna. Gratuze et al., 2020 Yes
PS19-T2R47H, PS19-TREM2R47H C57BL/6 MAPT, TREM2, Trem2 MAPT P301S, TREM2 R47H These mice carry a human MAPT transgene with the P301S mutation linked to frontotemporal dementia and a BAC transgene encoding the R47H variant of human TREM2, on a Trem2 knockout background. MAPT: Transgenic; TREM2: Transgenic; Trem2: Knock-Out Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia Decreased brain atrophy, microgliosis, astrogliosis, and synapse loss, compared with PS19 mice carrying the common variant of TREM2. Not known. Decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and DAM (disease-associated microglia) genes, compared with PS19 mice carrying the common variant of TREM2. PS19 mice are available from The Jackson Laboratory (Stock# 008169). TREM2 mice are available through Marco Colonna. Gratuze et al., 2020 Yes
Line PS19, PS19Tg B6;C3-Tg(Prnp-MAPT*P301S)PS19Vle/J (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 MAPT MAPT P301S Transgenic line expressing mutant human tau under the direction of the mouse prion protein (Prnp) promoter. The transgene codes for tau with four microtubule-binding domains and one N-terminal insert (4R/1N). MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia Neuron loss and brain atrophy by eight to 12 months, especially in the hippocampus and spreading to the neocortex and entorhinal cortex. Neurofibrillary tangles in the neocortex, amygdala, hippocampus, brain stem, and spinal cord. Neuroinflammation with microgliosis and astrocytosis. Impairments in spatial memory and learning ability in Morris water maze. Paralysis at seven to 10 months associated with a hunched-back posture followed by feeding difficulties. About 80 percent mortality by 12 months with median survival of about nine months. Clasping and limb retraction when lifted by the tail at three months, followed by limb weakness and brain atrophy. Homozygous females do not mate. The Jackson Lab: Stock# 008169; Live. Research with this model is available from QPS Austria. Yoshiyama et al., 2007 Yes
Tau22 C57BL6/CBA; backcrossed to C57BL6 MAPT MAPT G272V, MAPT P301S Transgene containing the cDNA of the 412 amino acid isoform of human 4-repeat tau mutated at sites G272V and P301S under a Thy1.2 promotor. MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease A variety of tau pathologies starting at 3 months, including neurofibrillary tangle-like inclusions, rare ghost tangles, and paired helical filament-like structures. Hyperphosphorylation of tau on many epitopes (e.g. AT8, AT100, AT180, AT270, 12E8, tau-pSer396, and AP422) and mild astrogliosis. Increased anxiety and delayed learning from 3 months, and reduced spatial memory at 10 months. No changes in overall motor activity and no gross motor deficits. Increased depression-like and aggressive behavior, co-occurring with disturbances in nocturnal activity. Fertile with normal frequency and size of litters. Stably transmits the transgene to offspring. Deficits in hippocampal synaptic transmission. Available through Luc Buée Schindowski et al., 2006 Yes
Trem2-/-PS19 C57BL/6 -TREM2tm1cln; B6;C3-Tg(Prnp-MAPT*P301S)PS19Vle/J C57BL/6 Trem2, MAPT MAPT P301S Trem2 KO (Colonna) mice were crossed with PS19 mice. TREM2 KO: Inactivation of the mouse Trem2 gene was achieved by targeted deletion of exons 3 and 4. PS19: express human MAPT (1N4R) with the P301S mutation, driven by the mouse prion protein (Prnp) promoter. Trem2: Knock-Out; MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease Microgliosis, astrogliosis, and brain atrophy in Trem2-/-PS19 mice are greatly attenuated compared with Trem2+/+PS19 animals. No data. Trem2 KO: available through Marco Colonna. PS19: The Jackson Lab: Stock# 008169; Live Leyns et al., 2017 Yes

6 Visualizations

AD-related Research Models

Phenotypes Examined

  • Plaques
  • Tangles
  • Neuronal Loss
  • Gliosis
  • Synaptic Loss
  • Changes in LTP/LTD
  • Cognitive Impairment

When visualized, these phenotypes will distributed over a 18 month timeline demarcated at the following intervals: 3mo, 6mo, 9mo, 1yr, 15mo, 18mo+.

hTau.P301S

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 17

    Neurofibrillary tangles detected as early as 4 months of age.

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 13

    Neuronal loss starting at 3 months. Loss is especially prominent in the spinal cord with notable loss of superficial cortical neurons as well (Hampton et al., 2010).

  3. X
    Gliosis at 22

    Astrocytosis, as measured by GFAP reactivity, in 6 month-old animals. Microglial activation in the brain stem and spinal cord of 5 month-old animals by OX42 staining (Bellucci et al., 2004).

  4. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 11

    Memory deficit starting at 2.5 months as assessed by the Morris water maze (Xu et al., 2014), but no deficit at 2 months (Scattoni et al., 2010).

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
  • Synaptic Loss at

    Unknown.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    Unknown.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT P301S MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Other Tauopathy

Age-dependent hyperphosphorylation of tau and conformational changes leading to neurofibrillary tanglelike pathology in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and spinal cord. Neurodegeneration, especially in the spinal cord, accompanied by astrocytosis.

Early motor impairment, including abnormal clasping and rotarod deficit at 4 months, with nearly complete deficit at 5 months. Deficits progress to severe paraparesis. Disinhibition and hyperactivity at 2 to 3 months.

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PS19 with humanized TREM2 (common variant)

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 37

    Tangles revealed using antibody PG5 at 9 months.

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 38

    At 9 months, atrophy of hippocampus and entorhinal/piriform cortex and pronounced ventricular expansion. Thinning of the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and pyramidal cell layer of the piriform cortex, compared with PS19 mice carrying TREM2-R47H.

  3. X
    Gliosis at 39

    Elevated expression of markers of astroglial and microglial reactivity, compared with PS19 mice carrying the R47H variant of TREM2.

  4. X
    Synaptic Loss at 40

    Fewer synapses and more dystrophic synapses, compared with PS19 mice carrying the R47H variant of TREM2.

Absent
No Data
  • Plaques at

    No data.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

  • Cognitive Impairment at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT, TREM2, Trem2 MAPT P301S MAPT: Transgenic; TREM2: Transgenic; Trem2: Knock-Out Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia

Brain atrophy by 9 months of age. Increased microgliosis, astrogliosis and synapse loss, compared with PS19 mice carrying TREM2 with the R47H mutation.

Not known.

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PS19 with humanized TREM2 (R47H)

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 36

    Tangles revealed using antibody PG5 at 9 months.

Absent
No Data
  • Plaques at

    No data.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    No data relative to wild-type mice, but at 9 months of age, the volumes of the hippocampus and entorhinal/piriform cortex are larger, and the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and pyramidal cell layer of the piriform cortex are thicker, in PS19-TREM2R47H mice, compared with PS19 mice carrying the common variant of human TREM2.

  • Gliosis at

    At 9 months of age, decreased expression of markers of astroglial and microglial reactivity, compared with PS19 mice carrying the common variant of TREM2, but no data relative to wild-type mice.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    At 9 months of age, more synapses and fewer dystrophic synapses, compared with PS19 mice carrying the common variant of TREM2, but no data relative to wild-type mice.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

  • Cognitive Impairment at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT, TREM2, Trem2 MAPT P301S, TREM2 R47H MAPT: Transgenic; TREM2: Transgenic; Trem2: Knock-Out Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia

Decreased brain atrophy, microgliosis, astrogliosis, and synapse loss, compared with PS19 mice carrying the common variant of TREM2.

Not known.

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Tau P301S (Line PS19)

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 23

    Neurofibrillary tangles in the neocortex, amygdala, hippocampus, brain stem and spinal cord at six months with progressive accumulation (Yoshiyama et al., 2007).

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 39

    Neuron loss in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex by nine to12 months, as well as in the amygdala and neocortex becoming more severe by 12 months (Yoshiyama et al., 2007).

  3. X
    Gliosis at 11

    Microgliosis at three months, especially in the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. Increased microgliosis by six months in white and gray matter of the hippocampus, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, and spinal cord. Microglial activation precedes astrogliosis (Yoshiyama et al., 2007).

  4. X
    Synaptic Loss at 13

    Synaptophysin immunoreactivity decreased progressively from three to six months in the CA3 region of the hippocamus. Impaired synaptic function (Yoshiyama et al., 2007).

  5. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 26

    Reduced LTP in the CA1 region of the hippocampus at six months. Altered basal synaptic transmission (smaller fiber volley amplitude, fEPSP slopes, and amplitudes) (Yoshiyama et al., 2007). Impaired hippocampal LTP as measured in freely moving mice (Lasagna-Reeves, 2016).

  6. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 27

    Impairments in spatial learning and memory ability in the Morris water maze in six-month-old animals (Takeuchi et al., 2011). Impaired memory in assays of contextual fear conditioning (Lasagna-Reeves 2016).

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT P301S MAPT: Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia

Neuron loss and brain atrophy by eight to 12 months, especially in the hippocampus and spreading to the neocortex and entorhinal cortex. Neurofibrillary tangles in the neocortex, amygdala, hippocampus, brain stem, and spinal cord. Neuroinflammation with microgliosis and astrocytosis.

Impairments in spatial memory and learning ability in Morris water maze. Paralysis at seven to 10 months associated with a hunched-back posture followed by feeding difficulties. About 80 percent mortality by 12 months with median survival of about nine months.

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THY-Tau22

Observed
  1. X
    Tangles at 13

    Heterozygous animals develop tau pathology starting at 3-6 months. Pathology becomes more severe and widespread with age. Neurofibrillary tangle-like inclusions occur (Gallyas and MC1+) along with rare ghost tangles and paired helical filament-like structures (Schindowski et al., 2006).

  2. X
    Neuronal Loss at 52

    Loss of cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus from 12 months as measured by DAPI staining and Nissl/cresyl-violet (Schindowski et al., 2006). Also, a significant reduction in the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunopositive cholinergic neurons in the medial septum has been reported (Belarbi et al., 2011).

  3. X
    Gliosis at 13

    Age-dependent increase in the number of GFAP+ astrocytes in the hippocampus (hilus, CA1, CA3), cerebral cortex, corpus callosum (Schindowski et al., 2006).

  4. X
    Changes in LTP/LTD at 39

    Altered paired pulse facilitation (PPF), a form of presynaptic short-term plasticity in 9-10 month old heterozygous animals: PPF increased at 10 ms. Also at this age, impaired maintenance of long term depression as compared with wild-type littermates (Van der Jeugd et al., 2011). Deficit in basal synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, but normal LTP (Schindowski et al., 2006).

  5. X
    Cognitive Impairment at 26

    Non-spatial memory affected as early as 6 months; spatial memory impaired only after 9 months (Van der Jeugd et al., 2013). Impaired appetitive responding (Lo et al., 2013).

Absent
  • Plaques at

    Absent.

No Data
Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
MAPT MAPT G272V, MAPT P301S MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease

A variety of tau pathologies starting at 3 months, including neurofibrillary tangle-like inclusions, rare ghost tangles, and paired helical filament-like structures. Hyperphosphorylation of tau on many epitopes (e.g. AT8, AT100, AT180, AT270, 12E8, tau-pSer396, and AP422) and mild astrogliosis.

Increased anxiety and delayed learning from 3 months, and reduced spatial memory at 10 months. No changes in overall motor activity and no gross motor deficits. Increased depression-like and aggressive behavior, co-occurring with disturbances in nocturnal activity.

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Trem2 KO (Colonna) x PS19

Observed
  1. X
    Gliosis at 36

    Microgliosis and astrogliosis by 9 months (the earliest age studied).

Absent
No Data
  • Plaques at

    No data.

  • Tangles at

    No data.

  • Neuronal Loss at

    No data.

  • Synaptic Loss at

    No data.

  • Changes in LTP/LTD at

    No data.

  • Cognitive Impairment at

    No data.

Genes Mutations Modification Disease Neuropathology Behavior/Cognition
Trem2, MAPT MAPT P301S Trem2: Knock-Out; MAPT: Transgenic Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease

Microgliosis, astrogliosis, and brain atrophy in Trem2-/-PS19 mice are greatly attenuated compared with Trem2+/+PS19 animals.

No data.

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