. Intranasal insulin therapy for Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a pilot clinical trial. Arch Neurol. 2012 Jan;69(1):29-38. PubMed.


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  1. As an insulin research scientist of many decades, it is of interest to read the article showing alterations in brain function by nasal insulin. For many years, it has been believed that brain tissue as an obligatory glucose consumer does not require insulin to stimulate glucose uptake. If critical parts of the brain do require insulin for normal function, then the investigator needs to realize that in the human population there is a very broad range of normal basal insulin levels in the blood, ranging from nearly zero to nearly 1 ng/ml fasting. If the symptom-reducing effect is real, then it would behoove an investigator to examine the basal fasting insulin levels in plasma of Alzheimer's patients to see if the disease appears with higher frequency in those subjects with low insulin levels.

    The part of the paper that I did not appreciate was the use of a fluoridated carbohydrate to assess metabolic status. Many people in the U.S. are unaware of what I believe to be toxicity of synthetic fluoride compounds. In my view, that part of the protocol should not have been permitted to be done.

    View all comments by Richard Sauerheber

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