. Directed conversion of Alzheimer's disease patient skin fibroblasts into functional neurons. Cell. 2011 Aug 5;146(3):359-71. PubMed. RETRACTED


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  1. This is a very nice paper showing direct conversion of skin fibroblasts to well-differentiated, functional glutamatergic human induced neurons (hIN). Use of this direct differentiation method with fibroblasts from PS1 and PS2 FAD subjects resulted in cells with increased Aβ42 (and aberrant APP intracellular localization), providing a proof of concept that this method can be used to derive cellular models expressing physiologic levels of pathogenic proteins in a neuronal cell context. These may be more useful model systems to study AD than those using undifferentiated cells or overexpressing pathogenetic proteins.

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