Pathogenicity: Alzheimer's Disease : Not Classified
ACMG/AMP Pathogenicity Criteria: PS3, PM1, PM2, PM5, PP2, PP3
Clinical Phenotype: Alzheimer's Disease
Reference Assembly: GRCh37/hg19
Position: Chr14:73640278 T>G
dbSNP ID: rs63749962
DNA Change: Substitution
Expected RNA Consequence: Substitution
Expected Protein Consequence: Missense
Codon Change: TAT to GAT
Reference Isoform: PSEN1 Isoform 1 (467 aa)
Genomic Region: Exon 5
This mutation was detected in a single individual with early onset dementia. Symptoms occurred very early, at age 29 in the proband and age 31 in the proband’s affected father. The proband’s father died at age 44 (unpublished findings; personal communication T.D. Bird, 2014).
The variant was absent from the gnomAD variant database (gnomAD v2.1.1, May 2021).
Postmortem examination showed neuropathology consistent with AD.
Y115 has been identified as key for PSEN1's γ-processivity, the carboxypeptidase activity that trims Aβ intermediates to form shorter, secreted species, and this mutant appears to reduce it (Szaruga et al., 2017, Arber et al., 2019, Liu et al., 2021). Analysis of secreted Aβs in the conditioned media of human embryonic kidney cells lacking endogenous PSENs and expressing this mutant along with wildtype APP, revealed increased Aβ42/40 ratio and decreased Aβ37/40, Aβ37/42, and Aβ38/42 ratios. This mutant also reduced total secreted Aβ levels. Interestingly, the authors also reported that Aβ42/40, Aβ38/42, and particularly Aβ37/42, ratios each correlated with reported ages of onset of clinical impairment across 16 PSEN1 mutations. Moreover, they proposed this residue as a key target for heterocyclic γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) to stimulate processing of pathogenic Aβ peptides.
Although one study using several silico algorithms to predict the effects of this variant on protein function (SIFT, Polyphen-2, LRT, MutationTaster, MutationAssessor, FATHMM, PROVEAN, REVEL, and Reve in the VarCards database) yielded conflicting results (Xiao et al., 2021), the CADD-PHRED tool, which integrates diverse information, gave it a high deleteriousness score above 20 (CADD v.1.6, Sep 2021).
Alzheimer's Disease : Not Classified*
*This variant fulfilled some ACMG-AMP criteria, but it was not classified by Alzforum, because data for either a pathogenic or benign classification are lacking: only one affected carrier has been reported without co-segregation data, and the variant is absent—or very rare—in the gnomAD database.
This variant fulfilled the following criteria based on the ACMG/AMP guidelines. See a full list of the criteria in the Methods page.
Well-established in vitro or in vivo functional studies supportive of a damaging effect on the gene or gene product.
Located in a mutational hot spot and/or critical and well-established functional domain (e.g. active site of an enzyme) without benign variation.
Absent from controls (or at extremely low frequency if recessive) in Exome Sequencing Project, 1000 Genomes Project, or Exome Aggregation Consortium. *Alzforum uses the gnomAD variant database.
Novel missense change at an amino acid residue where a different missense change determined to be pathogenic has been seen before.
Missense variant in a gene that has a low rate of benign missense variation and where missense variants are a common mechanism of disease.
Multiple lines of computational evidence support a deleterious effect on the gene or gene product (conservation, evolutionary, splicing impact, etc.). *In most cases, Alzforum applies this criterion when the variant’s PHRED-scaled CADD score is greater than or equal to 20.
|Pathogenic (PS, PM, PP)||Benign (BA, BS, BP)|
|Criteria Weighting||Strong (-S)||Moderate (-M)||Supporting (-P)||Supporting (-P)||Strong (-S)||Strongest (BA)|
Last Updated: 22 Feb 2022
- Szaruga M, Munteanu B, Lismont S, Veugelen S, Horré K, Mercken M, Saido TC, Ryan NS, De Vos T, Savvides SN, Gallardo R, Schymkowitz J, Rousseau F, Fox NC, Hopf C, De Strooper B, Chávez-Gutiérrez L. Alzheimer's-Causing Mutations Shift Aβ Length by Destabilizing γ-Secretase-Aβn Interactions. Cell. 2017 Jul 27;170(3):443-456.e14. PubMed. Correction.
- Arber C, Toombs J, Lovejoy C, Ryan NS, Paterson RW, Willumsen N, Gkanatsiou E, Portelius E, Blennow K, Heslegrave A, Schott JM, Hardy J, Lashley T, Fox NC, Zetterberg H, Wray S. Familial Alzheimer's disease patient-derived neurons reveal distinct mutation-specific effects on amyloid beta. Mol Psychiatry. 2019 Apr 12; PubMed.
- Liu L, Lauro BM, Wolfe MS, Selkoe DJ. Hydrophilic loop 1 of Presenilin-1 and the APP GxxxG transmembrane motif regulate γ-secretase function in generating Alzheimer-causing Aβ peptides. J Biol Chem. 2021 Jan-Jun;296:100393. Epub 2021 Feb 8 PubMed.
- Xiao X, Liu H, Liu X, Zhang W, Zhang S, Jiao B. APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 Variants in Alzheimer's Disease: Systematic Re-evaluation According to ACMG Guidelines. Front Aging Neurosci. 2021;13:695808. Epub 2021 Jun 18 PubMed.
No Available Further Reading
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