Mutations

PSEN1 V151M

Overview

Pathogenicity: Alzheimer's Disease : Not Classified
ACMG/AMP Pathogenicity Criteria: PM1, PM2, PP2, PP3
Clinical Phenotype: Alzheimer's Disease
Reference Assembly: GRCh37/hg19
Position: Chr14:73640386 G>A
dbSNP ID: NA
Coding/Non-Coding: Coding
Mutation Type: Point, Missense
Codon Change: GTG to ATG
Reference Isoform: PSEN1 Isoform 1 (467 aa)
Genomic Region: Exon 5

Findings

This variant was identified in a man diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease from a large cohort study in South China in which 14 genes associated with neurodegenerative dementias from 1795 patients were sequenced (Jiao et al., 2021). His age at onset was 49 years and his APOE genotype was APOE E3/E4. He had a family history of AD. The clinical phenotypes reported included memory loss, language impairment, and mental and behavioral changes.

This variant was absent from the gnomAD variant database (gnomAD v2.1.1, Sep 2021).

Neuropathology
Unknown.

Biological Effect
The biological effect of this variant is unknown, but in silico analyses predicted a damaging effect with a PHRED-scaled CADD score above 20 (CADD v.1.6, Sep 2021). As revealed by a cryo-electron microscopy study of the atomic structure of γ-secretase bound to an APP fragment, V151 appears to help stabilize the hybrid β-sheet that forms between PSEN1 and APP in preparation for cleavage (Zhou et al., 2019; Jan 2019 news).

Pathogenicity

Alzheimer's Disease : Not Classified*

*This variant fulfilled some ACMG-AMP criteria, but it was not classified by Alzforum, because data for either a pathogenic or benign classification are lacking: only one affected carrier has been reported without co-segregation data, and the variant is absent—or very rare—in the gnomAD database.

This variant fulfilled the following criteria based on the ACMG/AMP guidelines. See a full list of the criteria in the Methods page.

PM1-S

Located in a mutational hot spot and/or critical and well-established functional domain (e.g. active site of an enzyme) without benign variation. V151M: Variant is in a mutational hot spot and cryo-EM data suggest residue is of functional importance.

PM2-M

Absent from controls (or at extremely low frequency if recessive) in Exome Sequencing Project, 1000 Genomes Project, or Exome Aggregation Consortium. *Alzforum uses the gnomAD variant database.

PP2-P

Missense variant in a gene that has a low rate of benign missense variation and where missense variants are a common mechanism of disease.

PP3-P

Multiple lines of computational evidence support a deleterious effect on the gene or gene product (conservation, evolutionary, splicing impact, etc.). *In most cases, Alzforum applies this criterion when the variant’s PHRED-scaled CADD score is greater than or equal to 20.

Pathogenic (PS, PM, PP) Benign (BA, BS, BP)
Criteria Weighting Strong (-S) Moderate (-M) Supporting (-P) Supporting (-P) Strong (-S) Strongest (BA)

Last Updated: 22 Feb 2022

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References

News Citations

  1. CryoEM γ-Secretase Structures Nail APP, Notch Binding

Paper Citations

  1. . The role of genetics in neurodegenerative dementia: a large cohort study in South China. NPJ Genom Med. 2021 Aug 13;6(1):69. PubMed.
  2. . Recognition of the amyloid precursor protein by human γ-secretase. Science. 2019 Feb 15;363(6428) Epub 2019 Jan 10 PubMed.

External Citations

  1. gnomAD v2.1.1
  2. CADD v.1.6

Further Reading

No Available Further Reading

Protein Diagram

Primary Papers

  1. . The role of genetics in neurodegenerative dementia: a large cohort study in South China. NPJ Genom Med. 2021 Aug 13;6(1):69. PubMed.

Other mutations at this position

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