Mutations

PSEN1 G371C

Overview

Pathogenicity: Alzheimer's Disease : Not Classified
ACMG/AMP Pathogenicity Criteria: PM2, PP2, BP4
Clinical Phenotype: Alzheimer's Disease
Reference Assembly: GRCh37/hg19
Position: Chr14:73678632 G>T
dbSNP ID: NA
Coding/Non-Coding: Coding
Mutation Type: Point, Missense
Codon Change: GGT to TGT
Reference Isoform: PSEN1 Isoform 1 (467 aa)
Genomic Region: Exon 10

Findings

This variant was found in one individual in a study that screened the APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 genes in 1,431 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients from the Belgian neurology consortium BELNEU (Perrone et al., 2020). The authors used a targeted re-sequencing gene-panel and selected non-synonymous variants with a less than one percent minor allele frequency.

The proband’s APOE genotype was APOE3/4. The variant is absent from both the gnomAD and ExAC variant databases.

Neuropathology 

Unknown

Biological Effect

The biological effect of this mutation is unknown. In silico algorithms to predict the effects of this variant on protein function yielded conflicting results (Xiao et al., 2021) and its PHRED-scaled CADD score, which integrates diverse information, failed to reach 20, a threshold for deleteriousness prediction (CADD v.1.6, Sep 2021).

Pathogenicity

Alzheimer's Disease : Not Classified*

*This variant fulfilled some ACMG-AMP criteria, but it was not classified by Alzforum, because data for either a pathogenic or benign classification are lacking: only one affected carrier has been reported without co-segregation data, and the variant is absent—or very rare—in the gnomAD database.

This variant fulfilled the following criteria based on the ACMG/AMP guidelines. See a full list of the criteria in the Methods page.

PM2-M

Absent from controls (or at extremely low frequency if recessive) in Exome Sequencing Project, 1000 Genomes Project, or Exome Aggregation Consortium. *Alzforum uses the gnomAD variant database.

PP2-P

Missense variant in a gene that has a low rate of benign missense variation and where missense variants are a common mechanism of disease.

BP4-P

Multiple lines of computational evidence suggest no impact on gene or gene product (conservation, evolutionary, splicing impact, etc). *In most cases, Alzforum applies this criterion when the variant’s PHRED-scaled CADD score is less than 20.

Pathogenic (PS, PM, PP) Benign (BA, BS, BP)
Criteria Weighting Strong (-S) Moderate (-M) Supporting (-P) Supporting (-P) Strong (-S) Strongest (BA)

Last Updated: 22 Feb 2022

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References

Paper Citations

  1. . Amyloid-β1-43 cerebrospinal fluid levels and the interpretation of APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 mutations. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2020 Sep 11;12(1):108. PubMed.
  2. . APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 Variants in Alzheimer's Disease: Systematic Re-evaluation According to ACMG Guidelines. Front Aging Neurosci. 2021;13:695808. Epub 2021 Jun 18 PubMed.

Further Reading

No Available Further Reading

Protein Diagram

Primary Papers

  1. . Amyloid-β1-43 cerebrospinal fluid levels and the interpretation of APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 mutations. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2020 Sep 11;12(1):108. PubMed.

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