Mutations

PSEN1 E273G

Overview

Pathogenicity: Alzheimer's Disease : Uncertain Significance
Clinical Phenotype: Alzheimer's Disease
Reference Assembly: GRCh37/hg19
Position: Chr14:73664787 A>G
dbSNP ID: NA
Coding/Non-Coding: Coding
Mutation Type: Point, Missense
Codon Change: GAA to GGA
Reference Isoform: PSEN1 Isoform 1 (467 aa)
Genomic Region: Exon 8

Findings

This mutation was found in a large French study reporting 56 new families with autosomal-dominant early onset Alzheimer's disease. All probands met NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for probable AD and had a family history of disease (Wallon et al., 2012). The mutation was detected in one individual in a family with four affected individuals. Only the genotype of the proband is known, therefore segregation with disease could not be determined. Age of onset in this family ranged from 50 to 63 years, with a duration of about nine years. 

In a subsequent French study, two families with familial AD were reported, each with a single known mutation carrier (Lanoiselée et al., 2017). Ages of onset ranged from 46 to 53 years with disease duration between four and seven years in one family, while age at onset ranged from 44 to 54 in the other family with disease duration between three and five years.  

This variant was absent from the gnomAD variant database (gnomAD v2.1.1, July 2021).

Neuropathology

Neuropathological data are unavailable, but two carriers had levels of Aβ42, tau and phospho-tau in cerebrospinal fluid that were consistent with AD (Lanoiselée et al., 2017). 

Biological Effect

The biological effect of this variant is unknown, but several in silico algorithms (SIFT, Polyphen-2, LRT, MutationTaster, MutationAssessor, FATHMM, PROVEAN, CADD, REVEL, and Reve in the VarCards database) predicted it is damaging (Xiao et al., 2021). It was classified as likely pathogenic by these authors using the ACMG-AMP guidelines (Richards et al., 2015), and as probably pathogenic (Wallon et al., 2012) according to the algorithm proposed by Guerreiro et al., 2010.

Last Updated: 25 Aug 2021

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References

Paper Citations

  1. . The French series of autosomal dominant early onset Alzheimer's disease cases: mutation spectrum and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012 Jan 1;30(4):847-56. PubMed.
  2. . APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 mutations in early-onset Alzheimer disease: A genetic screening study of familial and sporadic cases. PLoS Med. 2017 Mar;14(3):e1002270. Epub 2017 Mar 28 PubMed.
  3. . APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 Variants in Alzheimer's Disease: Systematic Re-evaluation According to ACMG Guidelines. Front Aging Neurosci. 2021;13:695808. Epub 2021 Jun 18 PubMed.
  4. . Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med. 2015 May;17(5):405-24. Epub 2015 Mar 5 PubMed.
  5. . Genetic screening of Alzheimer's disease genes in Iberian and African samples yields novel mutations in presenilins and APP. Neurobiol Aging. 2010 May;31(5):725-31. Epub 2008 Jul 30 PubMed.

External Citations

  1. gnomAD v2.1.1

Further Reading

No Available Further Reading

Protein Diagram

Primary Papers

  1. . The French series of autosomal dominant early onset Alzheimer's disease cases: mutation spectrum and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012 Jan 1;30(4):847-56. PubMed.

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