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The APP gene encodes amyloid precursor protein, a transmembrane protein whose proteolysis gives rise to Aβ peptides. Mutations in APP are associated with Alzheimer's disease and Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.
MAPT encodes the microtubule associated protein tau, a protein central to Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology. MAPT mutations are not linked to familial forms of AD, but can cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and several other tauopathies. The pathogenic mutations, which can be either exonic or intronic, generally alter the relative production of tau isoforms and lead to changes in microtubule assembly and/or the propensity of tau to aggregate.
PSEN1 encodes presenilin-1, a subunit of γ-secretase, the aspartyl protease responsible for Aβ generation. More than 300 mutations in PSEN1 have been reported and mutations in PSEN1 are the most common cause of early onset Alzheimer's disease. Pathogenicity reclassification of PSEN1 is in progress.
The gene PSEN2 encodes presenilin-2, a subunit of γ-secretase, the aspartyl protease responsible for Aβ generation. Missense mutations in PSEN2 are a rare cause of early onset Alzheimer's disease.
TREM2 encodes Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 2, a transmembrane receptor that modulates microglial activity and survival. TREM2 variants cause Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD), a rare autosomal recessive early-onset dementia, and may modify the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).