AlzBiomarker

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (Sporadic) vs Alzheimer's Disease: tau-total (CSF)

A large number of studies over the past 20 years have quantified tau protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of people with Alzheimer’s disease, finding that levels of tau in AD patients are more than double those of control subjects. Tau is even further elevated in the CSF of people with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Meta-analysis of 11 eligible comparisons showed that CSF tau in these patients is nearly 12 times that of people with AD (effect size = 11.684, p <0.0001).

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How to interpret a forest plot: Each individual effect size (ES) is a ratio of the mean biomarker level in one condition over the mean level in another condition. An ES equal to 1 means that the two conditions had identical mean values. An ES > 1 indicates higher levels in the first condition, whereas an ES < 1 indicates lower levels in the first condition. The overall ES, indicated by a black diamond, is a weighted average of the individual effect sizes. The weight of each data point was determined by the inverse of the variance and is reflected in the size of each square. The width of the overall ES diamond is determined by the 95 percent confidence interval. Data out of range of the scale, including ES and confidence intervals, are indicated by an arrowhead at the edge of the plot, when applicable. 

Version 3.0, July 2021.