Released from hippocampal neurons in response to experience, the cytokine prompted microglia to eat extracellular matrix around synapses. This facilitated growth of new spines, and sharpened memory.
As mice age, a busy receptor-mediated protein transport across the barrier wanes; inhibiting an alkaline phosphatase restores it. Meanwhile, the aging barrier becomes generally leaky to large molecules.
Sex-specific polygenic hazard scores predict pathology and cognitive decline.
Cognitive enrichment in early life correlated with less Alzheimer’s pathology, and slower cognitive decline, in late life.