Aging is the common background of several aging-related disorders, such as AD and PD. To answer the question raised here, one has to first ask what causes aging: genetics (RAS), immune senescence, free radical accumulation, DNA damage, etc. Enhancing patients' well-being is necessary for the therapeutic approach of AD and PD. View all comments by Yue Huang
Aging increases the probability of virtually all common diseases within the demographic the individual(s) live in. The system has years of wear and tear with antibodies being selected for adaptive immunity. Years of eating, breathing (pollutants, microorganisms etc...) and moving.
Aging is a multifactorial phenomenon set on a continuum, and as such genetics and environment alone are not even enough to find strong causal triggers of age-related dementia. Working out the genetic-environmental link is extremely difficult.
View all comments by Jacob Mack
Aging is divided into
1. Primary aging—due to inherent
progressive decreased activities of the
genes that regulate the cells.
2. Secondary aging (accelerated aging)—primarily due to oxidative stress.
Oxidative stress is mainly caused by
external factors such as environmental
factors, toxic materials, ionizing
radiations, or any disease or condition that
alters the vascular endothelium and the
cell wall membrane. These altered conditions
allow the entry of substances that
displace the zinc from cell-specific
carbonic anhydrase enzymes, leading to their
decreased levels, hence, leading to cellular
What the medical field does not know is about
carbonic anhydrase enzymes, their molecular
reactions, and functions at the cellular level.
Carbonic anhydrase enzymes are ancient zinc
enzymes which are further divided into α,
which belongs to mammals and is thought to
be 200 to 300 million years old; the β,
which belongs to plants and is thought to