Antibodies used in this study were: Tau H-150 (sc-5587), CDK5 C-8 (sc-173), and actin (sc-1615) antibodies from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA). The phospho-specific tau antibodies AT-8, AT-100, AT-180, and AT-270 were purchased from Innogenetics (Ghent, Belgium); PHF-1 was a kind gift from Dr. Peter Davies (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY). Rabbit polyclonal "369" that recognizes the C-terminal region of APP was raised by our laboratory (Xu et al., 1998). Mouse monoclonal antibodies 4G8 and 6E10 against Ab were purchased from Signet Laboratories (Dedlam, MA); 22C11 against soluble APP was from Chemicon (Temecula, CA). Monoclonal antibodies against glycogen synthase kinase 3b (GSK3b) and g-adaptin were from BD Transduction Laboratories (San Jose, CA), and rabbit anti-Ser-9 (GSK3b) antibody was from Cell Signaling Technology (Beverly, MA).