Mutations

PSEN1 C410Y

Overview

Pathogenicity: Alzheimer's Disease : Pathogenic
Clinical Phenotype: Alzheimer's Disease
Genomic Mutation Name (MET1): g.69143G>A
Genomic Mutation Name (NT1): g.85755G>A
dbSNP ID: rs661
Coding/Non-Coding: Coding
Genomic Region: Exon 11
Mutation Type: Point, Missense
Codon Change: TGT to TAT

Findings

This comparatively well-studied mutation has been identified in at least three families affected by early onset Alzheimer’s disease, with symptom onset typically in the mid- to late-40s.

The C410Y mutation was reported by Sherrington et al., 1995, in conjunction with the cloning of the PSEN1 gene, known at the time as S182. The report utilized genetic data from 14 pedigrees, including two carrying the C410Y mutation. Both C410Y families (FAD3 and NIH2) were Ashkenazi Jewish. Clinical details of the FAD3 family, including pedigree, are reported in Goudsmit et al., 1981. This FAD3 family, also known as the S.W. or SNW family, had at least 20 affected individuals, five with neuropathological confirmation of AD. Age of onset for the confirmed cases ranged from 48 to 56 years (Poorkaj et al., 1998). Alzforum was unable to find published data on the NIH2 family.

A third kindred, known as ROU 011, was identified in France. This kindred includes at least 14 affected family members (see Campion et al., 1995, for pedigree).  Symptom onset ranged from 40 to 60 years of age. The mutation was shown to segregate with disease in this family. See also Campion et al., 1999.

The C410Y mutation was also one of several rare variants detected by exome sequencing in a British cohort composed of 47 unrelated early onset AD cases and 179 elderly controls who were free of AD-associated neuropathology. The mutation was detected in one Caucasian individual who developed cognitive decline at age 49. The patient died at age 57 with autopsy-confirmed AD.

Neuropathology

Neuropathology consistent with AD has been reported in multiple affected members from at least two families.

In addition, amyloid imaging has been performed in several members of a C410Y kindred. Specifically, amyloid levels in five presymptomatic mutation carriers (35 to 45 years of age) and one non-carrier family member (age 35) were measured by PiB-PET. Most notable was high focal PiB retention in the striatum coupled with a relative lack of PiB in cortical areas typically affected by AD. These findings suggest that, at least in this family, amyloid deposition begins in the striatum well before the onset of cognitive symptoms (Klunk et al., 2007). Consistent with an extended prodromal phase, Aβ42 levels in the CSF of presymptomatic C410Y carriers are already very low compared with levels in control subjects, at four to 11 years prior to estimated age of onset (Moonis et al., 2005).

At least one report has indicated plaques of the cotton-wool type, diffuse deposits that lack a dense core (Haleem et al., 2007).

This mutation was also one of several rare variants detected by exome sequencing in a British cohort composed of 47 unrelated early onset Alzheimer’s disease cases and 179 elderly controls free of AD neuropathology. The mutation was detected in one Caucasian individual who developed cognitive symptoms at age 49. The patient died at age 57 with autopsy-confirmed AD (Sassi et al., 2014).

Biological Effect

Many studies have examined the effects of the C410Y mutation in cell culture systems. In brief, expression of mutant presenilin-1 in CHO and COS cells raised Aβ42 levels and the Aβ42/Aβ total ratio, suggesting an effect on the selectivity of γ-secretase, at least in regard to APP processing (Xia et al., 1997; Murayama et al., 1999).

Several studies have suggested C410Y causes partial loss of function. In a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based expression model, C410Y expressing cells exhibited reduced PSEN1 gene expression and partial loss of function relative to cells expressing wild-type PSEN1 (Ahmadi et al., 2014). Consistent with a loss-of-function phenotype, expression of PSEN1 with the C410Y mutation did not rescue the β-neurexin processing deficit observed in PSEN1 knock-out cells. In contrast, cells expressing other AD-linked mutations (e.g., M146L and H163R) were not impaired, suggesting that altered neurexin processing by presenilin-1 may play a role in AD,  at least in cases linked to certain mutations (Saura et al., 2011). Similarly, expression of C410Y PSEN1 was associated with impaired Notch-1 cleavage in otherwise PSEN1-deficient cells (Nakajima et al., 2000) and impaired Notch signaling in a C. elegans model (Baumeister et al., 1997).

In silico, this mutation is predicted to be possibly damaging (Sassi et al., 2014).

 

Comments

Make a Comment

To make a comment you must login or register.

Comments on this content

No Available Comments

References

Mutations Citations

  1. PSEN1 H163R

Paper Citations

  1. . Cloning of a gene bearing missense mutations in early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Nature. 1995 Jun 29;375(6534):754-60. PubMed.
  2. . Familial Alzheimer's disease in two kindreds of the same geographic and ethnic origin. A clinical and genetic study. J Neurol Sci. 1981 Jan;49(1):79-89. PubMed.
  3. . Missense mutations in the chromosome 14 familial Alzheimer's disease presenilin 1 gene. Hum Mutat. 1998;11(3):216-21. PubMed.
  4. . Mutations of the presenilin I gene in families with early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Dec;4(12):2373-7. PubMed.
  5. . Early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: prevalence, genetic heterogeneity, and mutation spectrum. Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Sep;65(3):664-70. PubMed.
  6. . Amyloid deposition begins in the striatum of presenilin-1 mutation carriers from two unrelated pedigrees. J Neurosci. 2007 Jun 6;27(23):6174-84. PubMed.
  7. . Familial Alzheimer disease: decreases in CSF Abeta42 levels precede cognitive decline. Neurology. 2005 Jul 26;65(2):323-5. PubMed.
  8. . Presenilin-1 C410Y Alzheimer disease plaques contain synaptic proteins. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2007 Apr-May;22(2):137-44. PubMed.
  9. . Exome sequencing identifies 2 novel presenilin 1 mutations (p.L166V and p.S230R) in British early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2014 Oct;35(10):2422.e13-6. Epub 2014 May 2 PubMed.
  10. . Enhanced production and oligomerization of the 42-residue amyloid beta-protein by Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing mutant presenilins. J Biol Chem. 1997 Mar 21;272(12):7977-82. PubMed.
  11. . Enhancement of amyloid beta 42 secretion by 28 different presenilin 1 mutations of familial Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett. 1999 Apr 9;265(1):61-3. PubMed.
  12. . Familial Alzheimer's disease coding mutations reduce Presenilin-1 expression in a novel genomic locus reporter model. Neurobiol Aging. 2014 Feb;35(2):443.e5-443.e16. PubMed.
  13. . Presenilin/γ-secretase regulates neurexin processing at synapses. PLoS One. 2011;6(4):e19430. PubMed.
  14. . Notch-1 activation by familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD)-linked mutant forms of presenilin-1. J Neurosci Res. 2000 Oct 15;62(2):311-7. PubMed.
  15. . Human presenilin-1, but not familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mutants, facilitate Caenorhabditis elegans Notch signalling independently of proteolytic processing. Genes Funct. 1997 Apr;1(2):149-59. PubMed.

Other Citations

  1. M146L

Further Reading

Papers

  1. . Amyloid angiopathy and variability in amyloid beta deposition is determined by mutation position in presenilin-1-linked Alzheimer's disease. Am J Pathol. 2001 Jun;158(6):2165-75. PubMed.
  2. . Enhanced brain activity may precede the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease by 30 years. Brain. 2006 Nov;129(Pt 11):2908-22. PubMed.
  3. . Presenilin-1 D257A and D385A mutants fail to cleave Notch in their endoproteolyzed forms, but only presenilin-1 D385A mutant can restore its gamma-secretase activity with the compensatory overexpression of normal C-terminal fragment. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jun 10;280(23):22462-72. PubMed.
  4. . Effects of human presenilin 1 isoforms on proliferation and survival of rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2003 Jun;68(6):611-7. PubMed.
  5. . Detailed characterization of neuroprotection by a rescue factor humanin against various Alzheimer's disease-relevant insults. J Neurosci. 2001 Dec 1;21(23):9235-45. PubMed.
  6. . Identification of presenilin-1 gene point mutations in early-onset Alzheimer's disease families. American Journal of Human Genetics 59 Supp: A252, 1996.
  7. . Missense mutations in the chromosome 14 familial Alzheimer's disease presenilin 1 gene. Hum Mutat. 1998;11(3):216-21. PubMed.
  8. . Early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: prevalence, genetic heterogeneity, and mutation spectrum. Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Sep;65(3):664-70. PubMed.

Learn More

Alzheimer Disease & Frontotemporal Dementia Mutation Database

Primary Papers

  1. . Cloning of a gene bearing missense mutations in early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Nature. 1995 Jun 29;375(6534):754-60. PubMed.
  2. . Mutations of the presenilin I gene in families with early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Dec;4(12):2373-7. PubMed.