It is now well established that new neurons are generated throughout life. New neurons are supplied in adulthood in most mammals in two regions of the brain: the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, by locally residing neural stem cells, and the olfactory bulb, by neural stem cells present in the lateral ventricle wall. The new neurons confer plasticity to the circuitry and increasing evidence has established a role for adult neurogenesis in specific brain functions. The discovery of neural stem cells and neurogenesis in the adult mammalian central nervous system changed our view of the plasticity and function of the brain, and spurred enthusiasm for trying to harness their regenerative potential in new therapies for conditions such as depression and stroke. Our understanding of neural stem cells has increased dramatically over the past few years, but there are still many major outstanding questions. Topics such as the origin of new neurons, their function, alterations of adult neurogenesis in disease and potential therapeutic modulation will all be covered at this conference.