Alzbiomarker

Version 2.0 is live

26 Apr 2017  This update incorporates findings from about 50 recent studies. We've updated 19 meta-analyses and added 2 MCI analyses (Aβ38 and YKL-40). To see what's changed from the previous version, see here.


This interactive resource organizes decades of data on biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. Biomarker measurements from the cerebrospinal fluid and blood are curated from the primary literature and meta-analyzed.  The database was developed in collaboration with Henrik Zetterberg and colleagues at the University of Gothenburg and the meta-analysis results of the Version 1.0 dataset have been published (Olsson et al., 2016). We welcome your feedback and invite you to contact us at alzbiomarker@alzforum.org.

See below for links to each meta-analysis along with key statistics, such as p value and effect size -- a ratio of the mean biomarker concentration of one cohort over another (e.g. AD/control). View this page on a desktop, laptop, or tablet for a colorful, interactive graph of the results, plotted by effect size and z score.

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Version 2.0, April 2017

 
 
 
 

Meta-Analyses

The graph, and the table below it, show key results from all meta-analyses. As the overall result, the effect size—a ratio of the mean biomarker concentration of one condition over another (e.g. AD/control)—is plotted against the z score, a statistic indicating how far away the observed ratio is from the null hypothesis of no difference. For example, a z score of 1.96 means that the observed ratio is 1.96 times larger than the standard error; it is equivalent to p=0.05. A z score of 3.89 is equivalent to p=0.0001. Customize the plot by selecting group comparisons and/or biomarkers. The size of each circle reflects the total number of subjects in the meta-analysis. Mouse over the circle to learn more. In the table, click the arrowheads to sort each data column.

 

Biomarkers:

Meta-Analysis Effect Size z score | p value Number of
Comparisons
Number of
Subjects
AD vs CTRL: Aβ38 (CSF) Effect Size: 0.955 z score | p value: z = 1.05 | p = 0.29345 Number of Comparisons: 11 Number of Subjects: AD N=478, CTRL N=588
AD vs CTRL: Aβ40 (CSF) Effect Size: 0.928 z score | p value: z = 3.45 | p = 0.00056 Number of Comparisons: 32 Number of Subjects: AD N=1514, CTRL N=1285
AD vs CTRL: Aβ40 (Plasma and Serum) Effect Size: 1.065 z score | p value: z = 2.20 | p = 0.02803 Number of Comparisons: 26 Number of Subjects: AD N=2125, CTRL N=4265
AD vs CTRL: Aβ42 (CSF) Effect Size: 0.559 z score | p value: z = 49.55 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 168 Number of Subjects: AD N=11277, CTRL N=8315
AD vs CTRL: Aβ42 (Plasma and Serum) Effect Size: 1.031 z score | p value: z = 0.86 | p = 0.38718 Number of Comparisons: 27 Number of Subjects: AD N=2336, CTRL N=4452
AD vs CTRL: GFAP (CSF) Effect Size: 1.119 z score | p value: z = 0.34 | p = 0.73555 Number of Comparisons: 2 Number of Subjects: AD N=59, CTRL N=39
AD vs CTRL: MCP-1 (CSF) Effect Size: 1.123 z score | p value: z = 4.70 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 5 Number of Subjects: AD N=110, CTRL N=114
AD vs CTRL: MCP-1 (Plasma and Serum) Effect Size: 0.999 z score | p value: z = 0.02 | p = 0.98639 Number of Comparisons: 6 Number of Subjects: AD N=540, CTRL N=344
AD vs CTRL: NFL (CSF) Effect Size: 2.313 z score | p value: z = 8.92 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 10 Number of Subjects: AD N=271, CTRL N=322
AD vs CTRL: NSE (CSF) Effect Size: 1.470 z score | p value: z = 2.47 | p = 0.01358 Number of Comparisons: 7 Number of Subjects: AD N=258, CTRL N=160
AD vs CTRL: NSE (Plasma and Serum) Effect Size: 0.999 z score | p value: z = 0.01 | p = 0.99192 Number of Comparisons: 3 Number of Subjects: AD N=102, CTRL N=97
AD vs CTRL: VLP-1 (CSF) Effect Size: 1.355 z score | p value: z = 9.69 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 8 Number of Subjects: AD N=468, CTRL N=812
AD vs CTRL: YKL-40 (CSF) Effect Size: 1.291 z score | p value: z = 16.27 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 14 Number of Subjects: AD N=668, CTRL N=630
AD vs CTRL: YKL-40 (Plasma) Effect Size: 1.950 z score | p value: z = 1.93 | p = 0.05309 Number of Comparisons: 3 Number of Subjects: AD N=155, CTRL N=233
AD vs CTRL: albumin ratio (CSF/Serum and/or Plasma) Effect Size: 1.103 z score | p value: z = 2.23 | p = 0.02564 Number of Comparisons: 21 Number of Subjects: AD N=886, CTRL N=466
AD vs CTRL: hFABP (CSF) Effect Size: 1.394 z score | p value: z = 5.63 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 5 Number of Subjects: AD N=285, CTRL N=297
AD vs CTRL: hFABP (Plasma and Serum) Effect Size: 1.049 z score | p value: z = 0.40 | p = 0.69241 Number of Comparisons: 2 Number of Subjects: AD N=55, CTRL N=74
AD vs CTRL: neurogranin (CSF) Effect Size: 1.937 z score | p value: z = 6.71 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 10 Number of Subjects: AD N=574, CTRL N=555
AD vs CTRL: neurogranin (Plasma) Effect Size: 0.714 z score | p value: z = 1.14 | p = 0.25272 Number of Comparisons: 2 Number of Subjects: AD N=45, CTRL N=49
AD vs CTRL: sAPPα (CSF) Effect Size: 1.026 z score | p value: z = 0.59 | p = 0.55842 Number of Comparisons: 11 Number of Subjects: AD N=613, CTRL N=457
AD vs CTRL: sAPPβ (CSF) Effect Size: 1.020 z score | p value: z = 0.61 | p = 0.54244 Number of Comparisons: 12 Number of Subjects: AD N=672, CTRL N=481
AD vs CTRL: sTREM2 (CSF) Effect Size: 1.272 z score | p value: z = 3.92 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 6 Number of Subjects: AD N=388, CTRL N=370
AD vs CTRL: tau-phospho (CSF) Effect Size: 1.882 z score | p value: z = 29.47 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 116 Number of Subjects: AD N=8416, CTRL N=5957
AD vs CTRL: tau-total (CSF) Effect Size: 2.480 z score | p value: z = 54.71 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 188 Number of Subjects: AD N=12503, CTRL N=8145
AD vs CTRL: tau-total (Plasma and Serum) Effect Size: 1.788 z score | p value: z = 2.78 | p = 0.00550 Number of Comparisons: 8 Number of Subjects: AD N=447, CTRL N=552
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: Aβ38 (CSF) Effect Size: 1.127 z score | p value: z = 2.58 | p = 0.01000 Number of Comparisons: 2 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=87, MCI-Stable N=144
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: Aβ40 (CSF) Effect Size: 1.010 z score | p value: z = 0.23 | p = 0.81940 Number of Comparisons: 4 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=187, MCI-Stable N=251
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: Aβ40 (Plasma) Effect Size: 1.066 z score | p value: z = 3.72 | p = 0.00020 Number of Comparisons: 3 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=308, MCI-Stable N=379
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: Aβ42 (CSF) Effect Size: 0.663 z score | p value: z = 13.95 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 19 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=526, MCI-Stable N=881
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: Aβ42 (Plasma) Effect Size: 0.807 z score | p value: z = 0.99 | p = 0.32403 Number of Comparisons: 3 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=308, MCI-Stable N=379
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: YKL-40 (CSF) Effect Size: 1.271 z score | p value: z = 5.40 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 3 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=132, MCI-Stable N=160
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: neurogranin (CSF) Effect Size: 1.542 z score | p value: z = 2.97 | p = 0.00299 Number of Comparisons: 4 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=190, MCI-Stable N=170
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: sAPPα (CSF) Effect Size: 1.091 z score | p value: z = 1.30 | p = 0.19510 Number of Comparisons: 3 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=118, MCI-Stable N=169
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: sAPPβ (CSF) Effect Size: 1.055 z score | p value: z = 0.55 | p = 0.58568 Number of Comparisons: 3 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=118, MCI-Stable N=169
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: tau-phospho (CSF) Effect Size: 1.677 z score | p value: z = 8.05 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 13 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=340, MCI-Stable N=645
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: tau-total (CSF) Effect Size: 1.730 z score | p value: z = 14.43 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 19 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=481, MCI-Stable N=841

Further Reading

News

  1. Bloodborne Tau: Foggy Window into the Brain for TBI, Dementia
  2. Retinal Plaques May Enable Noninvasive Screening for AD
  3. Teasing Out the Brain Features Behind Cognitive Reserve
  4. Longitudinal Data Say: Nope, CSF Markers Do Not Track Progression

Webinars

  1. Learn About AD Biomarker Meta-Analysis on AlzBiomarker Database
  2. Webinar: O Blood-Based Biomarker, Where Art Thou?
  3. Untapped Resource? New Study to Boost Acceptance of CSF Analysis
  4. Together at Last, Top Five Biomarkers Model Stages of AD