Alzbiomarker

Welcome to AlzBiomarker!

For information about the development of this database, see Background, Methods, Glossary and FAQs.


This interactive resource organizes decades of data on biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. Biomarker measurements from the cerebrospinal fluid and blood are curated from the primary literature and meta-analyzed. The database was developed in collaboration with Henrik Zetterberg and colleagues at the University of Gothenburg. We welcome your feedback and invite you to contact us at alzbiomarker@alzforum.org.

See below for links to each meta-analysis along with key statistics, such as p value and effect size -- a ratio of the mean biomarker concentration of one cohort over another (e.g. AD/control). View this page on a desktop, laptop, or tablet for a colorful, interactive graph of the results, plotted by effect size and z score.

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Version 1.0, December 2015

 
 
 
 

Meta-Analyses

The graph, and the table below it, show key results from all meta-analyses. As the overall result, the effect size—a ratio of the mean biomarker concentration of one condition over another (e.g. AD/control)— is plotted against the z score, a statistic indicating how far away the observed ratio is from the null hypothesis of no difference. For example, a z score of 1.96 means that the observed ratio is 1.96 times larger than the standard error; it is equivalent to p=0.05. A z score of 3.89 is equivalent to p=0.0001. Customize the plot by deselecting group comparisons and/or biomarkers. The size of each circle reflects the total number of subjects in the meta-analysis. Mouse over the circle to learn more. In the table, click the arrows to sort each data column. 

Biomarkers:

Meta-Analysis Effect Size z score | p value Number of
Comparisons
Number of
Subjects
AD vs CTRL: Aβ38 (CSF) Effect Size: 0.992 z score | p value: z = 0.14 | p = 0.891 Number of Comparisons: 8 Number of Subjects: AD N=251, CTRL N=195
AD vs CTRL: Aβ40 (CSF) Effect Size: 0.945 z score | p value: z = 2.35 | p = 0.019 Number of Comparisons: 25 Number of Subjects: AD N=1079, CTRL N=784
AD vs CTRL: Aβ40 (Plasma) Effect Size: 1.044 z score | p value: z = 1.38 | p = 0.167 Number of Comparisons: 21 Number of Subjects: AD N=1661, CTRL N=3668
AD vs CTRL: Aβ42 (CSF) Effect Size: 0.561 z score | p value: z = 41.16 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 142 Number of Subjects: AD N=9949, CTRL N=6841
AD vs CTRL: Aβ42 (Plasma) Effect Size: 1.040 z score | p value: z = 0.99 | p = 0.321 Number of Comparisons: 22 Number of Subjects: AD N=1872, CTRL N=3855
AD vs CTRL: GFAP (CSF) Effect Size: 1.119 z score | p value: z = 0.34 | p = 0.736 Number of Comparisons: 2 Number of Subjects: AD N=59, CTRL N=39
AD vs CTRL: MCP-1 (CSF) Effect Size: 1.121 z score | p value: z = 4.23 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 3 Number of Subjects: AD N=59, CTRL N=59
AD vs CTRL: MCP-1 (Plasma and Serum) Effect Size: 0.999 z score | p value: z = 0.02 | p = 0.986 Number of Comparisons: 6 Number of Subjects: AD N=540, CTRL N=344
AD vs CTRL: NFL (CSF) Effect Size: 2.351 z score | p value: z = 7.86 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 9 Number of Subjects: AD N=245, CTRL N=292
AD vs CTRL: NSE (CSF) Effect Size: 1.470 z score | p value: z = 2.47 | p = 0.014 Number of Comparisons: 7 Number of Subjects: AD N=258, CTRL N=160
AD vs CTRL: NSE (Plasma and Serum) Effect Size: 0.999 z score | p value: z = 0.01 | p = 0.992 Number of Comparisons: 3 Number of Subjects: AD N=102, CTRL N=97
AD vs CTRL: VLP-1 (CSF) Effect Size: 1.457 z score | p value: z = 6.90 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 4 Number of Subjects: AD N=252, CTRL N=486
AD vs CTRL: YKL-40 (CSF) Effect Size: 1.285 z score | p value: z = 10.77 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 6 Number of Subjects: AD N=298, CTRL N=330
AD vs CTRL: YKL-40 (Plasma) Effect Size: 1.950 z score | p value: z = 1.93 | p = 0.053 Number of Comparisons: 3 Number of Subjects: AD N=155, CTRL N=233
AD vs CTRL: albumin ratio (CSF/Serum and/or Plasma) Effect Size: 1.100 z score | p value: z = 2.11 | p = 0.035 Number of Comparisons: 20 Number of Subjects: AD N=854, CTRL N=441
AD vs CTRL: hFABP (CSF) Effect Size: 1.394 z score | p value: z = 5.63 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 5 Number of Subjects: AD N=285, CTRL N=297
AD vs CTRL: hFABP (Plasma and Serum) Effect Size: 1.049 z score | p value: z = 0.40 | p = 0.692 Number of Comparisons: 2 Number of Subjects: AD N=55, CTRL N=74
AD vs CTRL: sAPPα (CSF) Effect Size: 1.032 z score | p value: z = 0.59 | p = 0.554 Number of Comparisons: 9 Number of Subjects: AD N=572, CTRL N=415
AD vs CTRL: sAPPβ (CSF) Effect Size: 1.018 z score | p value: z = 0.52 | p = 0.605 Number of Comparisons: 10 Number of Subjects: AD N=631, CTRL N=439
AD vs CTRL: tau-phospho (CSF) Effect Size: 1.882 z score | p value: z = 25.86 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 96 Number of Subjects: AD N=7498, CTRL N=5126
AD vs CTRL: tau-total (CSF) Effect Size: 2.535 z score | p value: z = 45.40 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 164 Number of Subjects: AD N=11341, CTRL N=7086
AD vs CTRL: tau-total (Plasma) Effect Size: 1.946 z score | p value: z = 2.36 | p = 0.018 Number of Comparisons: 6 Number of Subjects: AD N=271, CTRL N=394
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: Aβ40 (CSF) Effect Size: 0.984 z score | p value: z = 0.37 | p = 0.715 Number of Comparisons: 3 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=152, MCI-Stable N=189
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: Aβ40 (Plasma) Effect Size: 1.066 z score | p value: z = 3.72 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 3 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=308, MCI-Stable N=379
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: Aβ42 (CSF) Effect Size: 0.674 z score | p value: z = 10.32 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 12 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=352, MCI-Stable N=610
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: Aβ42 (Plasma) Effect Size: 0.807 z score | p value: z = 0.99 | p = 0.324 Number of Comparisons: 3 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=308, MCI-Stable N=379
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: sAPPα (CSF) Effect Size: 1.091 z score | p value: z = 1.30 | p = 0.195 Number of Comparisons: 3 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=118, MCI-Stable N=169
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: sAPPβ (CSF) Effect Size: 1.055 z score | p value: z = 0.55 | p = 0.586 Number of Comparisons: 3 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=118, MCI-Stable N=169
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: tau-phospho (CSF) Effect Size: 1.719 z score | p value: z = 6.50 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 9 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=251, MCI-Stable N=501
MCI-AD vs MCI-Stable: tau-total (CSF) Effect Size: 1.758 z score | p value: z = 15.53 | p <0.0001 Number of Comparisons: 12 Number of Subjects: MCI-AD N=307, MCI-Stable N=570

Further Reading

News

  1. Replication a Challenge in Quest for Alzheimer’s Blood Test
  2. TREM2 Goes Up in Spinal Fluid in Early Alzheimer’s
  3. Large Grant for Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Biomarker Study
  4. Countdown to Alzheimer’s: Can Fluid Biomarkers Predict Progression?

Webinars

  1. Webinar: O Blood-Based Biomarker, Where Art Thou?
  2. Untapped Resource? New Study to Boost Acceptance of CSF Analysis
  3. Together at Last, Top Five Biomarkers Model Stages of AD
  4. An Idiosyncratic View of AD Biomarkers