In children as young as 9 who carry a presenilin 1 mutation, researchers detect subtle functional and structural brain changes.
By recording from individual human brain cells, researchers find that single neurons can instantly encode associations, showing how rapidly they form memories.
A Phase 2b trial finds that the monoamine oxidase B inhibitor sembragiline missed its primary endpoint.
The scale of cortical folding in mammals—from rodents to humans—is dictated by a simple relationship between surface area and thickness.
The Center for Open Science published eight guidelines for journals to boost transparency and reproducibility in research. Will journals implement them?
One, NF-κB, was thought to be protective but seems to have a detrimental role in ALS.
Live imaging in mice finds that smooth muscle cells on arterioles exclusively control cerebral blood flow.
Worm study suggests that tipping the balance between progranulin and its granulin fragments might promote frontotemporal dementia.
When does Alzheimer’s disease begin? Researchers report that children as young as 9 years old who carry a presenilin 1 mutation already have differences in brain activity and structure compared with their peers, along with elevated Aβ42 levels. Researchers are unsure if these differences reflect developmental changes, compensation for the effects of Aβ, or early degeneration.
The physical forces that dictate how a ball of paper crumples also tell a cortex how much to fold. Researchers reported that the degree of cortical folding depends not upon any evolved traits, but rather upon a simple relationship between cortical surface area and thickness. This relationship endured across the mammalian order, from relatively smooth-brained manatees to elephants with tightly crumpled cortices, and to humans, which lie in between.
A bioinformatics technique used in cancer biology is starting to gain a foothold in the study of neurodegenerative disease. By comparing the brain’s interactome with gene expression profiles, systems biologists draw up lists of transcription factors that could be “master regulators” of neurodegeneration. In the case of ALS, scientists report eight candidate drivers of neuron death, including NF-κB. Previously, researchers used the same algorithm to identify 38 possible regulators of Alzheimer’s disease.
Pericytes, the cells that surround capillaries, have been proposed as the main modulators of cerebral blood flow. Now, a new study, using live imaging in transgenic mice, refutes this. Scientists report that only smooth muscle cells surrounding larger arterioles can constrict blood vessels. The data imply that less than 10 percent of brain blood vessels determine total flow, as well as fluctuations due to brain activity. The knowledge may help researchers develop more targeted therapies for brain vascular disorders.
- Randall Bateman on Familial Alzheimer’s Gene Alters Children’s Brains
- Bruce Lamb on New Journal Guidelines Aim to Boost Transparency in Research
- Creighton Phelps on New Journal Guidelines Aim to Boost Transparency in Research
- Patricia Mabry on New Journal Guidelines Aim to Boost Transparency in Research
- David Attwell on Smooth Muscle Cells, Not Pericytes, Control Brain Blood Flow
- Roxana Carare and Roy Weller on Smooth Muscle Cells, Not Pericytes, Control Brain Blood Flow
- Michael van Es on ALS Model Worms Sicken Via Innate Immune Pathway